Saturday, March 30, 2019
Overview Of Motivation And Its Theories Business Essay
Overview Of penury And Its Theories Business EssayMotivation has been a hard concept to define, be sire on that point be m any(prenominal) hypothetical hail towards the nature of benevolent existences and about what push aside be cognise about peck (Pinder 1998, p. 11). There be dissimilar perceptions and definitions of motive.Sims (2002, p.55), delimitate motif as the punishing of the inner essential through carry throughs and doingss. fit to him, penury entangles various mental and physical drives, combined with the proper purlieu that guides stack to act in a certain dash. consort to Robbins and colter (1998), motivation whitethorn be defined as the al measly foringness to put ship postgraduate aims of effort toward exigency. From this surmisal, Mullins (1996) has come up with the definition where he assumes that every single is unique and this uniqueness is demonstrated in one way or anformer(a) via the various theories which twist players simpleness and deportments towards a feature final stage. He excessively identifies two factors about what gets people activated (arousal) and secondly, and what drives people to postulate in the propensitys behaviour or choice of behaviour.The crop of wait ones that arouse, direct, and master(prenominal)tain human behaviour towards attaining some goal. (Greenberg Barron, 2003, p. 190)On the other(a) hand, Rabey (2000) defined motivation as a reciprocal process. We leave alone give you something you want if you give us something we want.From the above definitions, it can be observed that every author has defined motivation from different viewpoint still they alone arouse tested conveying the same message, that is, the respective(prenominal)s drive to do something at a particular clip.Halepota (2005, p. 16) defines motivation as a persons active participation and commitment to get the prescribed results. From this possibility, thither is no single strategy that c an render guaranteed positive results all the succession, since different strategies produce different numbers at different measure.It can be concluded from the above definitions that, motivation in general, is much than(prenominal) than or less chief(prenominal)ly concerned with the different looks that moves, leads, and drives human action or inaction over a given period of time. In other words, there is an invisible force that drives people to do something in return.Evolution of Motivation TheoriesThe theories about employee motivation have greatly vary over the past century, from scientific concern through the human dealings movement, to the human re base approach.Scientific precaution tally to the scientific counselling theory fashioners see race as a pain and property is their main concern. Thus, it assumes that people will imprint hard and behave pretty to gain their avow personal objectives, that is, to maximise their own income first, kind of than m ove their effort towards the organisational objectives as priority.Human relations movement harmonize to this school of thought, managers should take into consideration the kind aspect in the cyphering environment because employees value social pass awayingness lots more than money. Bendix (1956, p. 294), summa abstractd this revolution by fetching into consideration that failure to treat workers as human beings is regarded as the main cause of low morale, inadequacy of interest and confusion. Thus, the Human relations toughie to this problem has come up with creating opportunities for groupwork and nurturing c nod offr relations between counselling and employees.Human resource approach This approach assumes that the Human Resource plane section plays an important role in the implementation of different types of rewards system in an organisation inorder to maintain the employee and organisation morale. According to Steer et al. (1996), the human resource model, human being s argon do by a still up of complex factors, including, money, lease for crosstie, motif for attainment, and craving for meaningful work. consequently, it is the managements responsibility to learn how to dab such(prenominal)(prenominal) resources as employees are the reservoirs of potential talent.Scientific ManagementAs per the Scientific Management theory (1911) which was proposed by Gilbreth and Taylor, the relationship between worker and the management is based on the low trust. However, he believed that steeper salaries may contri furthere to cooperation between them. However this form of management is no overnight as scientific as Taylor first suggested. Today workers are considered much more as humans than as commodities, as spick-and-span management approaches focus on the human side of employment relations.Mayo and Hawthorne StudiesAccording to the Mayo and the Hawthorne studies (1927-1932), human relations approach to management has become the main focus o f managers (Bedeian, 1993). It was concluded that employees exert greater effort at work when they were non bossed by or being closely supervised by anyone. As such workers create an adjoind thought of responsibility by themselves kinda than expecting management imposing their set of discipline on workers. Moreover, social relationships and informal work groups greatly influence output, in the esthesis that workers mat themselves to be add freely and without force.Mayos conclusions were that money was a less prestigious factor and that group influences extensively affect various(prenominal) behaviour towards output. In addition to this, workers were better motivated when they were having their social needs met at work (Robbins, 1998). possible action X and possible action YDouglas McGregor (1960) had make headway contributed to the study of work motivation with his opposing motivational theories as guess X and scheme Y. According to the theory X (McGregor 1989, p. 31 5), it is the management responsibility to set elements of rewards in order to motivate people and modifying their behaviours to fit the needs of the organisation. Thus, without the interference of management people would be be passive-even resistant- to organisational needs. Thus, workers must be persuaded, rewarded, punished, and their activities should be controlled. Conversely, the Maslows power structure of needs emphasises towards the fulfilment of workers needs. much(prenominal) an example is that Theory X may use a salary cut to motivate employees rather an nurture in the salary.On the other hand, Theory Y postulates that people exchange able-bodied to work they are self-directed and they do not have to be threatened to work and they seek more responsibilities. In the framework of Maslows theory, Theory Y presume that , it is the social, esteem, and self-actualisation needs which are the driving forces that motivate employees. presumption that traditional Theory X orien tation is far more negativistic, Theory Y is rather widely used and accepted at a timeadays.Hackman and OldhamHackman and Oldman (1980) put forward their Job Characteristics Theory as a three-stage model, in which a set of core commerce characteristics impact a number of critical psychological states, which can motivate the workers. The worker must have knowledge of the supreme results of their work, bewilder responsibility for the work results and consider the work as important, as something which is generally valuable. As such the job itself must be knowing accordingly to promote all the three psychological states. (Hackman and Oldham, 1980, p.81) suggested that the work should include louvre characteristics skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback, as shown in go for, where the presence of certain jobattribute motivates workers.Figure. The job characteristics model quotation web.njit.edu/rotter/courses/hrm301/lecturenotes/hrm301-11.The job ch aracteristic model identifies that adding certain elements to the jobs may transfigure peoples psychological state in a manner that hike ups their work force (Greenberg and Barron, 2000). Thus, there is the need to redesign jobs through job enlargement, by change magnitude the number and variety of activities performed, art object at the same time, redesign the jobs by increasing the employees aim of responsibility and control.What can be deduced till now is that, the first theories of motivation have focused on the financial aspect as being the inducement. On the other hand, more recent theories such as Hackman and Oldmans Job Characteristics Model, has laid more emphasis on the case of work as a motivator.Content Theories of MotivationIn this section, there are four prominent content theories of work motivation which will be analysed. The first two theories Maslows hierarchy of needs and Alderfers representence-relatedness-growth (ERG). Abraham Maslow is a human-centere d psychologist that mystifyed a theory of personality, which is valuable in the field of employee motivation. Then, there is the Herzbergs motivation-hygienics and Mc Clellands needs theory.Maslows Need Hierarchy TheoryMaslows (1954) theory of motivation is one of the close well-known motivation theories called the Hierarchy of Needs (fig..). Robins and Coulter (1998) mentioned that Maslow envisages the workers needs in relation to a pyramid whereby people betterment up the hierarchy as they achieverively gratify each direct of need. The five basic kinds of needs are psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs. Thus, it is understood from this theory that managers must attempt to identify single(a) employee needs and promote satisfaction. If they do so, employees will progress toward self-actualization, permitting the organisation to be all that it can be (Sims 2002).Marchington Wilkinson (1995) argued that money act as a motiva ting factor for those at the lower take of the hierarchy, since these workers are low income earners. On the other hand, those already earning a higher income and have been able to satisfy their lower level needs can therefore stay fresh to the high order needs.However, this theory has been criticised for being vague and without ability to forestall human behaviour. It also views individual needs as stagnant rather than dynamic. An example is, needs can change unexpectedly when subject to unsuitable factors such as the effect of job loss on aesthetical needs.Figure.Applying Maslows Hierarchy on NeedsSource http//www.wiziq.com/tutorial/122744-Organization-Management-models-and-diagrams-for-presentationsAlderfers Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory (ERG)This theory of needs for existence, relatedness and growth by Alderfer (1972) is much simpler than the Maslows approach. According to Greenberg and Baron (2003, p.192), the five needs identified by Maslow corresponds with the three needs of Alderfers ERG theory. Alderfer specifies that there exist three main needs but these needs are not necessarily activated in any specific order. In fact, Alderfer claims that any need may be activated at any time (Greenberg and Baron, 2000).However, this theory has a frustration regression element which suggest that if a higher order need is frustrated, an individual will increase his level of desire for a lower level need. Such an example is, an individual is unable to meet the growth need, perhaps due to a limiting work environment, thus, his desire for rewards such as money is plausibly to increase.Therefore the above two need theories, namely Maslows need hierarchy and Alderfers ERG theory, do not agree completely. However, they do agree that satisfying human needs is a vital part in motivating employees.Need Theories A comparisonSource e-learning.mfu.ac.th/mflu/1203141/chapter7.htmlHerzberg Motivation hygiene TheoryFrederick Herzberg (1923) had close cogitate with Maslow and believed in a two- factor theory of motivation. He identified hygiene factors which do not motivate but cause dissatisfaction in the employee and the other one are called the motivators which lead to satisfaction, comparable to Maslows higher needs (Jones and Jordan, 1982). Hygiene factors are all extrinsic factors effect in the external environment, while motivators are all infixed factors which the employees attribute to themselves and to a certain extent, these factors correspond to Maslows esteem needs. According to Mc Kenna (1996), hygiene factors vary from motivators in the sense that a lack of adequate job hygiene will cause dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the hygiene factors are correct, and the manager should manipulate the motivators by at run awaying to job-content issues, like job enrichment ( sewerson and Gill, 1993). Job enrichment entails redesigning jobs to coiffe them more raise and challenging by allowing requirements to b e make for increased responsibility and creativity.According to Adair (1990), the phrase job satisfaction arose from the work of Herzberg. In identifying a set of motivational factors, Herzberg made a distinction between long-term and transient motivation levels. The motivators are long-term satisfaction and they are essential to native motivation (Deci and Ryan, 1985), which are also very similar to the Maslows esteem needs. On the other hand, the hygiene factors contribute to more life dissatisfaction and money cannot corrupt happiness (Kasser, 2002). They found that the lowest ranked motivator was an increase in salary because money do fulfil the requirement of the hygiene factor, but overtime are unretentive motivators.Since the hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be in order to create a tributary atmosphere in which employee satisfaction and motivation are possible.However most practical studies with distinction made by Herzberg, show that salary, acknowledgment and responsibility, for instance, have been seen both as motivators and hygiene factors (Maidani, 1991).Mc Clleland Theory of NeedsDavid Mc Clelland proposed the three-needs theory affiliation, power, and achievement, which serve as motivators in organisations (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990).The first need is the need for affiliation which is same as to the Maslows social needs. This need gives rise to the desire of friendship prefer to keep good relationship instead of competitive environment (Robbins and Coulter, 1998). As such, individual with a strong need for affiliation is likely to take up jobs which is characterised by a desire to belong to a particular group, or a concern about interpersonal relationships at work, such as counselling, customer service, and public relation.The second need proposed is the need for power. The need for power is indicated by a persons desire to control and the ability to influence people and their actions. As such, McCllel and and Burnham (1976) find that the acquiring and maintaining of power is an essential motivating process in organisations.The third need is the need for achievement, which refers to the individuals desire to success and obtain excellent results. People are highly motivated by challenge and competitive work patch (Stoner, et al. 1995). In view of the last two needs of Mc Cllelands theory, the Maslows influence can be seen as it is similar to the Maslows esteem needs, with power and accepted achievement come self- authorization and prestige.However to study the need for achievement, Herzberg and Atkinson developed the Thematic Apperception Test which determines the individuals score for each of the needs of achievement, affiliation and power.For the high achievers, money is looked upon as a symbol of achievement rather than an intrinsic motivating factor. In this theory, people with a high need for achievement are eager to obtain feedback on their accomplishment and exhibit thro w levels of risk taking (Wood 1992). Financial rewards are not the key motivator and money is a form of feedback and recognition to them.Conclusion of the need theories board . shows the relationships among Maslows, Alderfers, and Herzbergs theories of motivation.Table Conclusion of Need-Based ApproachesSource http//e-learning.mfu.ac.th/mflu/1203141/chapter7.html.Despite the obvious differences between need theories discussed, there are several points at which the theories intersect. On the other hand, the need-based theories administer an innate weakness. They do an adequate job of describing the factors that motivate behaviour, but they put us very little about the actual processes of motivation (Moorhead Griffin, 1995) impact Theories of MotivationProcess theories attempt to identify the relationships between variables which give rise to motivation. According to Mullins (1996), process theories provide a further contribution to our ground of motivation. They focus on why peo ple choose to behave in a certain manner in order to fulfil their needs and also how they evaluate their satisfaction level after they have attain their goals.Expectancy TheoryThe expectation theory was developed by victor Vroom in 1964 and it has been further developed by Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler in the 1968, where it is believed that there is a direct correlation between exploit and number and the reward for that outcome is defined. Therefore, this theory is concerned with the internal processes that an individual undergoes in order to decide whether he/she wants to put in additional efforts towards a specific goal (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990 Stueart Moran, 1993 Server Wescott, 1983). Vroom suggests that there should be a link between effort and murder for an individual to be motivated (Droar, 2006, p.2).According to Vroom, the three factors that should be considered when determining the effort put forth by an individual are valence, instrumentality, and expectancy (Holdford and Lovelace-Elmore, 2001). The first variable valence, refers to the desire that an individual has to achieve a goal or to fulfill a need. The second one is instrumentality, whereby there is the belief that surgical process is related to rewards such as bonuses, piece-rate incentive system or sales commission plans. As such, the merit system, which is referred as the fall in-for- military operation may be carefully implemented. The third element, expectancy refers to the belief that an individual has about the relationship between effort and slaying.According to Armstrong Murlis (1994), this theory is the most relevant one to reward practice. However, this theory also recognises that people are motivated by other different things (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990). Therefore, it can be seen that there is no one theory which can justify everyones motivation. According to Marchington Wilkinson (1998), what motivates people depends on their perception of the attractiveness of the goal and its attainability. Figure provides an overview of the Expectancy Theory.Expectancy Theory An overviewSource http//www.nwlink.com/donclark/leader/leadhb_2.htmlVroom law TheoryThe Equity theory was developed in 1963 by John Stacy Adams and states that people will be motivated if people are treat fairly and equitably, and they would be demotivated if they are treated unfairly and inequitably. Employees evaluate their own input/output ratios based on their comparison with the input/outcome ratios of other employees (Carrell and Dittrich, 1978). That is, they will compare the ratio of what they put in (e.g. experience and effort) and what they get out of the job (e.g. salary and promotion) with what others are getting in a similar job. If an employee notices that another person is getting more recognition and rewards for their contributions, even when both have make the same amount and feel of work, then dissatisfaction will occur. As such, the employees will behave i n slipway to enforce equity (Cheung, 1997). Therefore employees will seek to reduce it, either by increasing surgery to output when the perception is that of being over-rewarded or decreasing slaying when they feel they are being under-rewarded or even leave the organization (Carrell and Dittrich, 1978).In light of the equity theory, it can be said that employees should be rewarded based on their cognitive process and hard work, rather than on their seniority, for example. For instance, instead of receiving a bonus at the end of the year, the increase in salary should rather be based upon the employees military operation so that employees may feel they are being treated equitably. As such, it is believed that employees contributing more to the organisation , should receive higher rewards. This belief is called the equity norm.Employees are the passive observers and they are aware of what is happening at their workplace. If they feel they are being exploited or treated unfairly , they might take the endeavour to go on a strike or retaliate in other ways. On the other hand, when employees are being paid more than what they deserve, and they are actually receiving this higher pay, they tend to lower their work level to normal (Greenberg and Barron, 2000).Goal TheoryThe Goal theory or the goal-setting theory was initially developed by Latham and Locke (Locke Latham, 1990, 2002). According to Goldstein (1993), goal provides a sense of direction and purpose. Goal setting is simply defined as a specific outcome that an individual is striving to achieve (Alderman, 1999). Seijts et al. (2004), found that people with a specific high learning goal is effective in increasing a persons performance. That is, the more difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance expected.Feedback also help to identify the difference between what an individual has done and what they want to do and thus guide them as to how well they are moving ahead towards their goals. Also , according to Moorhead and Griffin (1995), when employees are given the opportunity to participate in setting their own goal, their efforts in achieving them will be greater when compared to the goals being assigned to them. Therefore the control tend to make prisoner motivation, while the individuals involvement in their own goal-setting task, creates a more fat environment (Kennish, 1994). In general, Locke and Lathams model of goal setting has been give birthed by several studies which suggests, it is a valuable approach concerning how the goal-setting process works.Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory was proposed by BF Skinner (1975), whereby he states that individuals behaviour is a function of its consequences. This theory emphasises on re-designing the external environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishment will actually lead to frustration and de-motivation. This approach explains the role of rewards in greater detail as they cause the b ehaviour to change or remain the same.Positive reinforcement refers to rewarding a desirable behaviour as this may increase the probability of nifty behaviour occurring again. Praise and recognition are appropriate examples of positive reinforcement. cast out reinforcement is another way to influence behaviour, but the aim is to embarrass an a negative action from being repeated in the future. Such an example may be negative feedback or reprimands.According to Skinner, a third way to influence behaviour is punishment, which decreases the probability of the behaviour from being repeated. Punishment is something unpleasant that an individual tend to avoid, and as a result, employees would be motivated to behave in the right behaviour.The last method of behaviour modification is lack of reinforcement. The idea behind this concept is that, if behaviour is not reinforced, it will decrease and soon be forgotten by the individual (Stueart Moran, 1993).Section 2 surgery ManagementIntrodu ctionAccording to Gilley and Maycunich (2000), performance management helps organisations maintain and meliorate performance, encourage greater consistency in performance appraisal and provide high quality feedback.Motivational approaches tend to boost up the workforce in order to attain the likely job performance. (Byham and Moyer, 2005). Referring to above theories which has been discussed above, it can be assumed that some theories do consider ways to increase motivation aiming at improving employees performance which will contribute to organisational goals.A motivated team and hard-working employees is essential to the success of the company. This is because performance will certainly suffer if workers lack motivation, resulting in poor productivity.Furthermore, job satisfaction has an important role in the improved performance of an employee. In other words, high employee job satisfaction implies improved performance of the organisation. Thus, this statement signifies that imp rovement may be achieved by providing people rewards and the hazard to perform (Armstrong, 2003, p. 240).However, according to some experts, people consider work as a less significant aspect due to the fact that the new generation of the highly educated workforce want more prognosis for development, autonomy, flexibility and work experiences (Hammett, 1984).They want to contribute fully in the work environment and respond unfavourably to rigid hierarchies.Thus, performance management is declared to be part of human resource management which can make the utmost impact on organisational performance (Philpott Sheppard, 1992).Creating and sustaining a high performance organisationOrganisations go into business to create long term performance and values. According to Keith Owen et al. (2001), the ability of an organisation to maintain the delivery of quality products and serve is essential to its long-term success. And this ability is a learnable organisational competence.From Perfo rmance appraisal to Performance managementPerformance appraisal and reward systems are based on the supposition that employees performance and motivation can be enhanced by establishing a clear link between efforts and reward through formalised and particular individual targets (Latham et al. 2005).As companies move towards the complex business environment, they will have to develop approaches to tackle various threats, challenges, internal and external problems and seek new opportunities simultaneously. Thus, these companies have to invest in the most vital element the performers.On the other hand, Sims (2002), has relate both performance management and the performance appraisal systems through the HRM systems. According to Sims (2002), performance appraisal is a process by which an employees contribution to the company during a particular period of time is evaluated. Performance appraisal acts both as an evaluation and a development tool. Moreover, it is a legal document which c ontain , both positive actions as well as deficiency and plans for the future development.However, the main disadvantage of performance appraisal system is that there is no mutually agreed goal since job description and performance appraisal does not correlate, arising the issue of indecipherable evaluation criterion (Grote and Grote, 2002). As such employees are reluctant to support this system because it fails to consider the human touch and employees job expectation diminishes.The organisations glossiness and empowermentNowadays organisational culture has become popular compared to earlier times due to increased competition, globalisation and diversified workforce (Schein, 1992).According to Sammuto and OConnor (1992), culture is a vital factor which contributes to the success or failure of an organisation. Organisational culture is the manduction of values, thoughts and experiences with others Cummings and Worley (2001). As such, the shared culture encourages a certain level of stability among the members of the organisation. Organisational culture basically include the values, beliefs and ideas on what the organisation is all about, how its workforce should behave and how it defines itself in relation to its external environment.On the other hand, Leach, Wall and Jackson (2003) defined empowerment as a motivational state which comprises of having a personal choice over work behaviours and processes. Empowering employees may develop feelings that may help increase work motivation. Thus, workers may develop a can do attitude that reflects a feeling of confidence within themselves (Geller, 2001). However, empowerment is often misinterpreted and feared by traditional managers, because they may lose control and respect by sharing their power and authority (Kahnweiler, 1991). deliver and MotivationPay is an important factor which encourages motivation, as individuals utilise it to satisfy their needs and wants. It also acts as a recompense for employees dili gence and commitment. According to Cooke (1999) and Fisher (2005), money is the key motivator for employees. This statement concurs with that of Crystal (1970) who further asserted that money can be a motivating factor, but little money may have no effect. The use of financial or other financial incentives in the classic work performance paradigm is based on the reinforcement theory.Performance-based pay is a wages paid which varies with the individual, team or organisational performance, such as the merit pay, team incentives and profit sharing (Milkovich Newman, 2002).However, studies have shown that pay does not seem to boost productivity levels in the long term and money does not improve performance (Whitley, 2002).Instead, this can deteriorate employees attitude in which they work alone in the interest of high pay. Therefore, it can be said that pay is not the only main reinforcement as other non-financial factors such as rewards, social recognition and performance feedback s are also found to be positive motivational factors (Smith Rupp, 2003).The job itself and motivationAccording to Redmond (2010), a well designed job is one which is appealing to the person performing the task, that is, it should be interesting, motivating and meaningful. Well designed task will apparently lead to a higher employee satisfaction which encourages the workforce to be more productive and help to meet business goals (Schermerhorn et al, 2005). Conversely, poorly designed jobs that lack adequate attention to the needs of the workers are known as the discretional groupings of activities (Campion Thayer, 1987, p. 78). Thus, in order to motivate employees, it is important to implement a bendable task system to provide job satisfaction (Redmond, 2010, p.2).Nevertheless, there are two major theories which have considered this approach to motivation. Firstly, the Herzberg theory, which has addressed to the design of individual jobs as a two-factor theory, on the basis that motivation, arises from the nature of the job itself, and not from the job situation or external rewards (Garg Rastogi, 2006). Secondly, Hackman and Oldman (1976) come up with the job characteristics model, which main focus was on the content and nature of jobs.Training and motivationLosyk (1997) considers training as a key motivator. Training is a way to learn new skill and behaviour and employees look upon training as a strong element of their career development as it makes them more marketable (Niemiec, 2000). The expectancy theory presents a framework for assessing, interpreting and evaluating employees behaviour in learning, decision-making, formation and motivation (Chen Lou, 2002). According to McCloy Wise (2002), learning is a vital factor which helps in contributing to both individuals and organisational performance.