Thursday, February 28, 2019
When we think of moral philosophy, we think of two words, unspoiled or bad. Through the history of our world, philosophers and scientists feature devised several thoughts that include a system that we be able to use to de terminaline who and what is wide-cut or bad.As a population, we cornerst whiz use these dissimilar terms and types of good guess to determine which style, form, or bearing of ethical motive fits with our beliefs and culture. Some of these diametric types of theories include virtue hypothesis, utilitarianism, and deontological morality. Although these all fall into the socio-economic class of a conjecture of ethics and may bet to be similar, they be besides genuinely contrary.When looking at the virtue hypothesis of ethics, we can see that the term char answerer can be used in the place of virtue. consort to Ben (2007), the virtue theory has roots that r each(prenominal) back to the time of Plato. Plato, and the virtue theory, suggest that all men and women would be happy if they would only detainment the eternal Form of the Good as his or her criterion.In crease to the virtue theory, the utilitarianism theory suggests that a mortal present or father behavior of good for the entire team or collection. One of the problems associated with this theory gibe to Boylan (2009) is that for either moral theory to civilize in a group, the group must first come to some terms of a general checkerment. Knowing this and thinking on this teaching, there argon fewer times in my life where a team or group of race come together on any fancy and agree on its entirety.The deontological theory suggest a contrasting idea to the other(a)(a) two theories, it suggests that there ar features within the works of the individual that determine whether it is decline or non. The first theory was ab show up the char symbolizeer of the individual, the second theory was some a group of individuals, this theory involves the fills of a person. The deontological theory as well suggests that an individual may cerebrate that good intentions argon more than measurable than the results. One personal experiencethat comes to mind when writing about these theories. more years ago, I worked for an electrical contractor, his moral concepts and mine were not the analogous. His idea of running a line of products was to bid a lot lower than any other contractor, when in fact, he did get the channel, the work he employ was shoddy and the materials were sub-par. He could not perceive the value of the labor that was performed by his employees, he could have simply bid more per job, paid his employees proceeds that fit their position, and used materials that were deemed appropriate. His virtue or community mission statement was get the job d hotshot(a) as cheaply as thinkable.As a businessman I can realize the splendor of saving money and using business sense to achieve business directives, however, purposefully pa ying employees low wages, using non name brand part and bidding lower than any other contractor for both job is one ethic that I do not agree with. thither argon s hitherto general ethical categories used in defining the ethical values and moral philosophy great deal watch out. from each one category has different subsections and expectations for a persons behavior. A persons morals and ethical beliefs part from a mixture of values from these various theories and indeed he or she does not necessarily fit snugly into one category. The top trinity ethical theories are deontological, utilitarianism, and virtue- found ethics these are the theories below examination.Deontological Theory Also known as concern-based, categorical imperative, and The princely Rule, deontology focuses on decisions about whats set based on broad, airlift universal ethical principles or values such as honesty, check keeping, fairness, loyalty, arightfulnesss (to safety, privacy, etc.), justi ce, responsibility, compassion, and respect for human beings and property (Trevino, 2011, pg. 42). People following this ethical category believe moral principles outline the necessary obligations and duties principles developed by scriptural or religious beliefs and societal or government laws. A deontological person does not worry about the consequences of a decision. Their concerns focus on calling or moral obligations. In a master key capacity, the person follows instructions of managers or supervisors because it is his or her duty to respect authority, even if the instructions are unethical. Utilitarianism TheoryThe second most common category of ethical behavior is also known asconsequence-based or teleological ethics. In this category, slew focus on decisions that result in the most benefits for the superior number of pack in a society. Utilitarianism ethics applies to much of the decision-making in the business world, as a company exerts an case to become environment ally responsible and trustworthy. A difficulty that arises with utilitarianism is that the decisions made cannot account for every possibility. This gist that the person is unlikely to arrive at a completely consummate assessment of all future consequences and the rights of a minority group can easily be sacrificed for the benefit of the majority (Trevino, 2011, pg. 42). lawfulness Ethics equity ethics tend to fit in more with the deontological category than with utilitarianism. In this category, the focus is on making good decisions because it reflects the type of person one wants to be. A good person eviscerates good decisions and exerts effort to crop goodness in all that they do and all that others do (Boylan, 2009, pg. 133). In this category, large number need a personalized approach to decision-making that not only accounts for societal expectations but also for how the person wants to be perceived, focusing on the act or decision instead of the consequences. Virtue et hics are advantageous to good deal working in specialized professional communities. A professional community or organization, such as physicians or lawyers, has a super developed set of ethical standards. These standards give the members of the community guidelines to follow when move to be good moral doers.Personal ExperienceIn a gambling casino, deontological values are important. In any position, there are local, state, and federal laws that govern the activities within the casino. State regulations are especially stiff on how employees handle money and gambling chips. As a command employee in a local casino, my deontological ethics followed company and state policies. Because of the come-at-able legal ramifications, I chose to place state regulations before company obligations. in that location were inconsistencies in how guidance handled money per state guidelines documentation was required for every step in the process. Whenever I saw something getting do incomplet ely orinappropriately, I documented each instance. After a few weeks of documentation, I discovered that the Washington State Gambling Commission part had never seen any of the paperwork.This meant that my immediate supervisor and the owners had concealed the paperwork so that the company would not have to make the necessary changes or possibly seem fines for improper handling of money. My morals and values caused an ethical dilemma because I knew that the company was following improper procedures but I also knew that ratting the representative of the missing paperwork and improper handling practices could cost me my job. I chose to follow the higher level duties and obligations outlined by the state regulations in an effort to prevent the loss of the company. This choice backfired on me in the end management fired me because I informed the state representative of the issues.ConclusionEach ethical theory has its own rules and expectations. There are sub-levels within each categor y that creates even more varied options. When a person knows his or her own values and morals, it is easier to identify which ethical category he or she fits into. In this manner, a person is more aware of why he or she makes the decisions he or she does and can see other viewpoints more clearly. There are different types of ethical theories. Ethical theories help to start out how a person should act towards another or in a situation. The various types of ethical theories helps people cook what is right and what is wrong and how we make those assumptions. Although the three main theories of ethics have the same purpose they are different from one another. The virtue theory is the ethical theory also called character ethics is based on the moral of what is ethical. It is based on personal belief and feeling of character. It describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, sooner than rules (Wikipedia, 2012). Virtue ethics is character based and focu ses on helping people develop a better character trait.According to the text (2009), virtue ethics take the viewpoint that in living your life you should try to cultivate excellence in all that you do and all that others do. These excellences or virtues are both moral and non-moral. It deals with the moral character of a person quite an than what is the more ethical thing to do or what society expects from them. Utilitarianism states that something is virtuously right if it is for the greater good of all. It is most often used in the United States government because of the principle of satisfying everyone. According to Wikipedia (2012), it is the measurement between what is right and wrong without consequence. A utilitarian is a person who puts the requirement of others before their own.They believe that success is achieved as a whole rather than individually. It is based on factual beliefs where the moral worth is based on the overall outcome. Deontological or Duty ethics is the ethical theory that is based on ones duty to do the right thing. Deontology states that people act ethically moral because of what is expected from them in a particular(prenominal) situation. For example, at work you are more likely to use deontological ethics in determining how to behave in the workplace. It is because your employer expects for you to follow the code of ethics set forth by the company. It is based on what society expects out of you as a person and a citizen.Voting could be considered to be a deontological ethical decision as well as utilitarianism because even though you may want to vote because of your personal beliefs and character, most people do it because it is necessary and they are expected to do so. It also is for the good of all Americans and if one person fails to vote it can affect the people as a whole. For me this is also a virtue base theory as well because I feel that it is my duty to myself to vote because of how I was raised. I was always taught t he importance of voting and the things that can become from voting.The three main ethical theories are the basis of the path to making decisions and how decisions are made. They set the standard for how and why people act the way they do or why and how they make the decisions that they make. It helps to determine what is right and what is wrong and how assumptions are made to come to conclusions. Although the three main ethical theories serve the same purpose of establishing ethical principles (Rainbow, 2002), they differ from one another because they each define different points and differ in a persons duty to make ethical decisions. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory. An action is right or wrong based on its consequences. John Stuart Mill was an important philosopher in developing the idea of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism holds that any action thatresults in a greater amount of contentment in the world is a right action and any action that results in pain or les s(prenominal) triumph is wrong. Utilitarianism can be divided into different versions. roleplay utilitarianism is one of the versions of utilitarianism.Act utilitarianisms goal is to maximize the overall bliss of the universe. Act utilitarianism uses the superlative Happiness Principle which says in every situation, choose the option that you believe to be most likely to produce the greatest possible happiness or least possible unhappiness for the all people who leave behind be affected. An act utilitarian would determine if robbing a bank is a right action or not by determining how much happiness the robbery would create. To do this he would have to use the voluptuous calculus, which is a way of adding up all the happiness that everyone affected by an action would receive. If the results of this calculation show that the bank managers, the hundreds of investors, and the police would all be unhappy with this action and only the robber and maybe his family would be happy, thenc e robbing the bank is a wrong action. If the bank managers did not care about the customers money, the FDIC insured all the stolen money, the police were not unhappy because of the robbery, and the robber was extremely happy because he could move to the Caribbean and never work again, then robbing the bank would be a right action.There are many good points to act utilitarianism. It is very appealing because most people want to increase their happiness and reduce their pain. Act utilitarianism says that people could do that and they would not only make everyone happier but they would also be doing what is morally right. Act utilitarians will not have conflicts over any action being right or wrong because the voluptuary calculus is an heading test that proves the amount of please or pain that will result. It is a standard that all actions can be evaluated by. Another point or act utilitarianism that can be seen as an advantage over rule utilitarianism is that each individual situati on can have a different action be right. This means that in every situation the right action will provide more happiness or less pain as opposed to rule utilitarianism where the individual situations do not matter. Act utilitarianism also has some disadvantages. One major fault of act utilitarianism is that some actions would produce a greater amount of happiness if they were done in secret. The same action, however, would produce less happiness if it were done in public.That means that the exactsame action and situation would be right if no one knew about it but wrong if enough people were aware of it. If people know about an action and believe it is wrong, then wouldnt it be just as wrong if no one knew about it? The action would still have the same affect on the same amount of people, they just would not know about, so they could not be unhappy about it. Act utilitarianism can also seem unjust because the hedonistic calculus may say that it is right to take away the rights of a p erson because it will contribute to the overall happiness in the universe. Act utilitarianism would say an action producing pain for a delicate number of innocent people is right as long as the rest of the world is happy about it. Another problem is the feelings of a person are disregarded only the consequences are important.Some other problems with act utilitarianism are if a person has never experienced a similar situation, then they will be unable to perform the hedonistic calculus because they will not know if people will be happy or not. It also may not be possible to compare the different peoples happiness. Act Utilitarianism has many problems. If everyone acted according to act utilitarianism, then the majority or people would probably be happier. But morally correct actions do not necessarily have to make people happy, so act utilitarianism might not be a good way to determine if an action is really right or wrong.References2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River NJ 0 7458The sound Environment of Business A Crititical Thinking Approach 4th variate Nancy K. Kumasek, Bartley ABrennanm M. Neil Browne, Bowiling Green University2009 Oxford University PressBusiness Ethics and Ethical BusinessRobert Audi, University of Notre birdieNew York /Oxford2011 SAGE Publications, IncStrategic Corporate Social Responsibility Stakeholders in a Global Environment 2nd fluctuation William B Werther Jr(University of Miami) and David Chandler (University of Texas at Austin)2013 South-Western CENGAGE LearningBusiness Ethics Ethical Decision Making and Cases 9th Edition O. C. Ferrell, John Fraedrich and Linda FerrellMason, Ohio
Elements of a Crime (Actus Reus & Mens Rea) modeling Lesson Plan Source Original lesson plan. outlet 2 from David Crump, Criminal rightfulness Cases, Statutes, And Lawyering Strategies, Lexis Nexis 2005 pg. 117-18. I. Goals by the end of this var. sstudents should have a sthrong foundation for discipline criminal statutes and differentiating ssimilar crimes. II. Objectives a. Knowledge objectives as a subject of this course of action sstudents leave al cardinal be better able to i. define Actus Reus and Mens Rea ii. witness the different gradations of Mens Rea iii. nderstand the differences betwixt Washingtons homicide statutes b. Skills objectives as a result of this class sstudents lead be better able to i. read a statute cautiously and apply it to fact patterns ii. benefaction and defend their interpretations of the law c. Attitude objectives i. Sstudents should understand that the severity of criminal punishments can vary greatly depending on the defendants mental s eparate in a manner that is generally consistent with the general societal belief that intentionally wrongful acts are worse than unintentional, but still wrongful acts. ii.Sstudents should carefully consider the potentially harsh results that occur when legislatures replace mens rea with strict financial obligation. III. Methods (1)Distribute Handout 1 (Hypos) (2)Read the opening hypothetical aloud as a class. Ask for volunteers to answer the questions. a. The class should come to the remnant that Frank did cause Bills destruction in the sense that if he hadnt moved the mirror in the particular way he did at that exact measure, the window washer wouldnt have been blinded and Bill wouldnt have slipped. This is a good exemplar of but for or actual causation as used in Handout 2.However, the law typically only imposes liability where the defendants conduct is the proximate cause of the termsful termination/ crime. b. However, it seems like Frank didnt do everything wrong. Try to elicit wherefore this result seems wrong and write the classs ideas on the w filmeboard. (3)Distribute Handout 2 (Elements) (4)Handout 2 Walk through the Elements spillage. Be careful to inform that non all of the elements are always present in a criminal statute. For example, attempted murder doesnt have a harm element and parking violations dont have a mens rea element, e. g. ne can receive a parking citation for parking in a handicapped spot even if it was unintentional or an accident. Furthermore, the elements arent perfectly discrete and there is some overlap. (5)Distribute Handout 3 (Statutes) a. rationalize that the groups will be analyzing the hypos with respect to the statutes provided in Handout 3. The Grades of Homicide are meant to contend the win overs mens rea. b. Walk through the statutes and give a thumbnail sketch of i. First phase murder 1. Premeditated killing. An intentional killing that was deliberate and contemplated prior to the killing. . tho roughgoing point Indifference. Covers the possibility that someone knows that what they are going to do will result in the death of another person, but at the same time doesnt intend to kill. See the bomb hypo in handout 1. ii. Second compass point murder 1. Intentional killing without premeditation. The classic example is a passion killing where the homicide occurs in the heat of the bite. iii. First degree manslaughter 1. Recklessness. Conscious awareness of an unacceptable risk to human life. Recklessness is ssimilar to extreme indifference, but the risk that human life will be upset is less. v. Second degree manslaughter 1. Criminal negligence. Gross deviation from standard of care. v. statutory rape 1. No mens rea. Strict liability with a limited optimistic defense where minor misrepresents age. In an effort to protect minor children, state legislatures have placed an increased burden to ascertain age on the older party. (6)Break into groups of 3-5 to apply statutes to Hyp os 1-5. Have groups designate a reporter and a recorder. The recorder should write each of the group members names on the discharge of handout 1 and also record the groups aanswers on the space provided.The Reporter is responsible for pardoning the groups reasoning and conclusion when the class reconvenes. (7)Reconvene Class call on each group to present their analysis of one hypo. Ask questions to push them in the right style if you think they missed something or ask questions forcing them to defend their aanswers if you think they got it right. strike out to teacher suggested aanswers to the hypotheticals are on a separate sheet at the end of this lesson plan. (8)Take-away mens rea standards vary widely from premeditated intent to strict liability.You pauperism to read statutes carefully to determine the correct standard. IV. Evaluation a. Group carrying into action on written responses to Hypos1-5 and class discussion. V. Assignment a. Write a one page response to the follo wing question Shcould Melvin be punished for his family relationship with Laura? If not, please explain why. How do you think Washingtons statutory rape statute should be changed? If you think that Melvin should be punished, please explain why. Handout 1 Hypothetical Scenarios Introductory Hypo Frank is component his friend move into a downtown Seattle condo.While unloading a sizeable mirror from the moving truck, the bright sunlight hits the mirror and reflects against the 40th nucleotide of the skyscraper across the lane which temporarily blinds a window washer and causes him to stumble. During this moment of temporary blindness, lasting about a second and a half, the window washer inadvertently kicks over his window washing bucket onto the highway below. The water and soap from the bucket hit the sidewalk right in front of Bill the jogger. Bill was unable to stop before stepping on the slippery sidewalk, causing him to lose his balance and fall.When Bill fell, he hit his he ad on the sidewalk. Bill died two weeks later from his head injury. think that Washington law provides Anyone who causes the death of another person shall be culpable of murder. Wcould Frank be guilty of murder under this law? Shcould he be? Group Exercise Hypos Instructions Nominate someone in your group to be the recorder and another person to be the class reporter. Read each hypothetical and determine which statute, if any, applies to the facts of the hypothetical and whether the defendant has break the statute.Hypo 1 Sarah is held at gun point by Roger on a rooftop. Roger tells Sarah that she must shoot and kill Steven. Sarah pleads with Roger to let her go and that she does not urgency to kill Steven. Roger tells Sarah that unless she successfully shoots and kills Steven, he will kill Sarah and her entire family. Roger has a violent reputation and Sarah has no reason to believe that Roger will not follow through with his threat. Roger identifies Steven walking on the other side of the street and tells Sarah to take the shot.Fearing for the safety of her family and herself, Sarah takes careful aim at Steven, gauges the wind and change in elevation, and fires a precise shot penetrating Stevens heart. What crimes if any has Sarah committed?
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Life of Pi Reading Response When I began learning Life of Pi by Yann Martel I had little expectation it would blooming my interest. I expected it to be a boring school date that I would afford to get through, process the information and put on paper. To my relief, this ledger was completely the opposite. I must admit, the beginning chapters were quite dry. I would have never chosen in the beginning of a script to mention a sloth, probably the most uninteresting mammal ever. Slowly, the book progresses to where it gives you a little background information on piscine Patel and his liveliness in India.In part one, I really liked where Mamaji taught Piscine to swim. Looking back it proved to be a very substantial for Pis survival I dislike stories where the heros journey is clearly defined anda once weak man overcomes wild circumstances to become a stronger man. That was not the case in this book. I like the realness of the book, especially in the case of Richard Parker. He wasn t personified in any way really. He was what I think a natural tiger would be given the conditions. What I really enjoyed roughly this book was the deep thinking it evoked.The author allowed you to come to your own closing curtain as to whether the fiction with the animals or the story with the people was true. Normal system of logic and reasoning tells you that the story with the people would be right, because the chance of the story with the animals hap is hard to believe. Both stories have the alike circumstances and follow the same events. The zebra represents the sailor, the hyena is the cook, the orangutan is the mother and Richard Parker is Pi, but I believe the story with the humans is the true story.I think that the story with the animals was Pis way of coping with the reality that his mother was hit and that he murdered someone as well. I believe the choice that the members of the Ministry of Transport had to recognise about the stories is a metaphor for religion. Science and many religions all have an explanation for certain events and some seem farfetched, yet they could all be possible. In the end, its all up to what you believe, and the way you interpret it.
Good afternoon Dear Audience, wish a shot I am here(predicate) to speak close to something we atomic number 18 all pass through. But first of all, let me start with some questions. I am sure that we all tried to stimulate the answers to them at least at bingle measure in a invigorationtime. Do you know what is Time? Or What is lacuna? Maybe you know what is Conscience? Or what is a Dream? Is on that point Heaven? or Hell? How notify we snuff it without knowing whether we are the champions to choose our ingest paths? And are we sure that we really Live? So many questions remain unanswered. And all these issues and many many others are in a constant connection with our Lives. Life is something we are all here going through and this is exactly the thing I would like to splatter intimately today.There are a lot of technical definitions for the forge Life, hardly can we really fit the whole heart of this enounce in a sentence from the dictionaries, roughly of whic h claim that Life is the case of existence that processes, acts, reacts, evaluates, and evolves through reproduction and metabolism.But what is life really to the highest degree, if anything? Basically, scientists, today are contemplating to the highest degree 2 possible theories. That life is either a nonsensical accident arising from the laws of physics operating in a implicationless universe, or it is a step in a so-called think experiment. I say step, for this, cannot be the end. The current body politic of life is yet too unst fitted and undeveloped for it to be the end. And I say experiment since the evolutionary nature of life suggests that its future is unknown. If thusly the universe itself has a purpose, it counts most likely to be to explore what the consequent of the evolutionary experiment would be.And here comes the question of what kind of the outcome leave behind we eventually acquire. In our contemporary world, we all get to listen to scientific debates on how, when and where life allow for come to an end. However, questions remain which may neer be resolved. In this vacuum, philosophers and religious thinkers swallow attempted to give meaning to life by suggesting goals Plato suggested the acquisition of knowledge, Aristotle to practice virtue, and the Stoics, mental fortitude and self-control. nowadayss philosophers echo the existentialist view that life is full of absurdity, although they alike tell us that we must put meaning into life by making our own values in an indifferent world. But if life is just a journey from womb to tomb, will such meaning be sufficient to allow the traveler at journeys end to feel that it was pricewhile?The worthwhile journey, the Beginning, and the End, Birth and Death, talking about Life I can not skip on talking about Time. All animals except forgivings live in a continual present, with no sense of the temporal distinctions of past, present, and future. Our consciousness of time is, thitherfo re, one of the most important distinguishing features of humankind. It comes as no surprise, then, that from time immemorial, philosophers, teachers, and theologians put up speculated on the true nature of time. Does time have a substance and, if so, what is it get of? How do we know that time really exists? Does time have a bulge outning and an end? There is a general agreement among philosophers that time is continuous and that it has an intrinsic direction or order. There is also a more or less general agreement that it is objective, rather than inwrought or dependent on its being consciously experienced, and also that so many different physical processes bear consistent time dealing to each other. However, even given that, many differing opinions and approaches to what time truly is have been put forward over the centuries.Presently, most websites and books on the subject begin with a candid admission that time is a curious and slithering concept which continues to defy d efinitive explanation despite hundreds, even thousands, of long time of trying. We are told that time is enigmatic and ineffable, hardly that does not foster us much in our search for the true nature of time. about two and a half thousand years ago, Aristotle contended that time is the most unknown of all unknown things, and arguably not much has changed since then. despite the fact that we dont know exactly what time is, we remedy try to develop and move forward. Throughout my entire speech, Ive been forever repeating one word. WE. skillful 2 letters. Do you know what they mean, since I dont? We call ourselves Human beings. And, actually, being a human today does not necessarily mean being humane, being able to read or write, being able to work and provide yourself with everything that is needed. for the most part verbalize, the main features that distinguish us from animals are our abilities to think unconventionally, speak twofold languages, develop all-around spheres, f rom literature to sciences, from arts to business, and ,of course, we are different, since we believe in more than what we see and we hope for more than what we possess.Lately, Ive been thinking about our Lives a lot, and I couldnt resist the desire to share my thoughts with you, which, of course, are backed up by the scientific facts and evidence. While thinking about it, Ive listened to myself carefully and eventually noticed that inexplicable go speaking from within. Most of the time we dont pay enough paying attention towards this part of our being., however, it should not be taken for granted. Some call it privileged voice, others prefer to call it conscience. This is the reason, employed in questions of right and wrong. It is that within a man which approves or condemns his actions. The inner voice is a principle without which a man falls easily into temptation, and every temptation succumbed to factor degradation of his best instincts. He feels that he is no longer the sam e, but something weaker, something polluted, and the secret uneasiness and self-reproach which pursue him are the biting of conscience. unconstipated though this voice should evoke all the notions of what is right and what is wrong there are some whose ideas of justice and injustice are so offbeat that even the most wicked actions bring no remorse and at times even win their approval. Principles are not born in a man but are the result of training and association. It should be the endeavor of all of us, so that when temptation comes we will not fall, but resist it, and with every victory strengthen our character until we grow into noble, household and self-reliant people. So, wherever you go and whatever you do your inner voice is always there, whispering the right answer.From time everlasting, weve always been trying to find the answers to as many questions as possible. We come up with the possible explanations, however, there is no-one out there to say that we are moving in a r ight direction. Who knows, maybe we are just fooling ourselves, and while, relying on our own science, we try to explain the inexplicable, we are increasingly driving ourselves into the jungles, from which, one day, we will not be able to find a way out. Just look at all the global conspiracy theories, most of which seem not only inconceivable but totally delirious. Let me pull in couple of them in order for you to have a comprehensive read of what I am actually talking about.The weewee fluoridation surmise, for instance, claims that the water we drink actually contains fluorite, which allegedly brainwashes the entire population of the Earth and makes us susceptible to inculcation. Or the other theory which states that the Moon does not exist, since its a hologram put there by someone unknown. And finally, the theory which assures us that lizard people, also known as reptilians run the world. What the believers actually propose is that the top echelon of our government is actual ly controlled by shape-shifting reptilian aliens, who have been lording power over humans to turn them into mindless slaves for their own purposes.I can not deny the fact that hundreds of conspiracy theories look like the ravings of a madman, however, how can we be so sure that all of these laughable guesses come from nowhere? How can we be so sure about something yet unknown? We have to set priorities for ourselves. This is all about our Lives, not anyone elses. In todays ruthless world you either live in lies and ignorance, or you leave your carefree life behind and go search for the Truth. Life is just a wink of an eye if one thinks of eternity. Its fast and its short but its worth every single second since it can not be bought, it can not be changed nor can it be returned, ever. And in order to make your Life a worthwhile journey, be sure to rejoice in every single day as if it is the last one you have. convey You for Your attention
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
IntroductionNew hang Jackets Inc. (NLJ) is a well-established manufacturing company that makes lash and nylon chapiters. The company has many long stand customers due to their excellent service and quality of products. In 2012, they had some fuss with quality and filling orders on time due to the increase of essential to the whip tops. A disagreement analysis has been completed and this report provide break galvanic pile the results.Sales Volume Variance AnalysisThe gross revenue volume for NLJ is aureate as a whole because 10,000 much(prenominal) jackets were change then ciphered. The sales agreements volume for the nylon jacket is un well-fixed because 1,500 fewer jackets were change then computeed. However the strap jackets sales volume is well-to-do because 11,500 more jackets were sold. After taking a closer look at the sales volume and breaking the variance into sales mix and sales quantity. The trounce jackets hasten a favourable sales mix that the n ylon jackets have an unfavourable mix the overall sales mix is favourable. The overall favourable sales mix is favourable because of the high increase in lather jackets sold. The sales mix was cyphered at 95% Nylon and 5% slash but the veritable was 85% Nylon and 15% lash. The actual sales mix was a composite unit consists of 0.85 units of sales to the Nylon jackets and 0.15 units of sales to the Leather jackets. The reason for this favourable variance is due to the increase in demand of leather jackets. The market place placeing team did not foresee this trend therefor did not allow the increase of leather jackets in the 2012 budget. NLJ has a favourable sales quantity variance due to the total jackets sold exceed the budgeted jackets.They have a $139,625F sales quantity variance because sold 10,000 more jackets then what was budgeted. It usher out also be stated as 10,000 X $13.9625 (see appendix 1) = $139,625F. The 13.9625 (11.6375 Nylon + 2.2350 Leather) is the philia of budgeted CM per unit forbudgeted mix. The nylon jackets make up 83.3% of this favorable variance because 77,000 more jackets were sold. This is a more affordable product therefor sales more. The sales quantity variance can be further broken down into market-sh be variance and market-size variance. The market-share is $349,063 unfavourable the company did not achieve the 40% of the leather jacket market because of the major increase to demand. The budgeted leather jacket market was 12,500 but the actual market was 125,000, the market increased 10 times. This lapsing was the reason for the unfavourable market-share. The nylon jackets were budgeted at 20% market-share and actually were 22% of market-share. The market-size variance is favourable, as the total market-size was greater than expected. The budgeted market unit was 487,500 but the actual size was 550,000, an increased demand of 62,500 units. The market increase is because of the leather jacket demand. In 2012, the nylon jacket market decreased by 50,000 units.Flexible calculate Variance AnalysisFor the nylon jackets all budgeted amounts were achieved expected the protean selling and administration. The variable selling and administration was favourable by $14,025. The favourable variance was because budget was 15 cents higher than actual. The decrease in the selling and administration greet was due to the decrease in demand for 2012. The leather jackets flexible budget variances were all unfavourable excluding the direct wear upon compute. The direct labour rate was favourable due to the inexperience workers hired to produce the leather jackets. The leather jacket market increase significantly so the demand for skillful workers increased. NLJ had to resort to hiring unskilled workers to keep up with demand. This resulted in a favourable direct labour rate but at the cost of sale returns increasing to 8% from 1%. The flexible budget variance is make up of the efficiency (usage) variance and e xpenditure variance. The leather jacket price variance is 44,550U because the price was understated in the budgeted by 2.70 per unit. The efficiency (usage) variances for the leather jackets are both unfavourable for direct materials and direct labour. The standard labour usage was 2 hours, NLJ actual labour usage was 2.5 hours. This resulted in a 165,000U variance ((2-2.5)*20*16,500). The direct materials efficiency variance was 66,000U. NLJ used 0.2 metres more a jacket then productionstandards ((2.5m 2.7m)*20*16,500). These unfavourable variances are due to the inexperienced workers that were hired because of the unforeseen demand in leather jackets.Break-Even AnalysisThe sales mix is budgeted for 2013 as 77% Nylon jackets and 23% Leather jackets. With this sales mix the break-even outlined in Appendix 2 is 53,561 Nylon jackets and 16,068 Leather jackets. For both products, this is 53.56% of the actual budgeted amounts therefor break-even should be reach by second quarter. If th e expected market size of either jacket decreases demand, NLJ will stillness be in the black for 2013.Operating Budget 2013Outlined in Appendix 3 is the draught operating budget for 2013. The nylon jacket be are expected to increase by 5% and leather jacket costs have increased from 2012. The production and marketing managers looked the expected conditions for 2013 and the draft budget reflects that. This year, total production is expected to increase by 18.2% and loot income by $766,400.RecommendationNLJ knows the Nylon market well so the variances were minimal. The leather market is where the company has to spend more time researching and developing the budget to dilute the unfavourable variances. The markets and future trends should be researched in a more small matter for 2013.ConclusionNLJ is a profitable company and can get profitable by keeping their long standing customers. They need to research the market and know the trends coming up so they can budget and plan more efficiently. The big swing in unfavourable variances was mainly due to the unforeseen increase in demand to leather jackets. In 2013, NLJ will not see this variances as workers will be full trained and the marketing and production data is including the upcoming trends.
An resistance of the People, depicts an intriguing playwright in which the differences of opinions between two brothers leads to a townshipshipship revolution and the expulsion of one brother from the community. One brother, Dr. Stockmann, believed the contamination of the irrigate in the towns health watering place was sufficient debate to be shut down. The other brother, neb Stockmann, took an opposing stance believe that the health spa was the towns only means to economic salvation, and that closing the spa would detriment altogethery affect the entire population of the town.The town stood behind instrument, and the town kept the spa and maintained its financial prosperity, while Dr. Stockmann was shunned and left tactility that the town he loved had chosen the wrong priorities and was not fulfilling the honorable affair to preserve life. As Peter is the protagonist in this story, the call into question to whether his actions were moral or immoral must be raised. The stance that this audition will take in answering this question is the Utilitarian outdoor stage described by John Stuart nerd. Utilitarianism must be defined if to be applied to this question.Before Mill, Utilitarianism promoted the idea of utility, or the promotion of pleasure over pain. Pleasure is wherefore described as a happiness that all people wish to achieve. John Stuart Mill goes further to contribute that some(a) kinds of pleasures are more desirable and more valuable than others, therefore, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone (Mill 162). Mill alike argues that the consequences are more important than the intentions behind actions. Therefore, if the consequences are good then the motivations dont matter.Complementing the principle of utility, the greatest good for the greatest number, Mills definition of happiness would justify the morality of Peter Stockmanns actions towards his brother. Peter Stockmann strongly felt that cl osing the health spa would drastically affect the entire town that his family had worked so hard to build. In his dais to the crowd Peter says, we know what this town was without our Institute. We could barely afford to note the streets in condition. It was a dead, third-rate hamlet (Ibsen 90). Following with, within phoebe bird years the ncome of every man in this room will be immensely greater, and someday we will be one of the richest and most delightful resort towns in the world. Many good consequences come from a town that had nothing to a town with a beautiful and prosperous resort, these consequences overwhelm a higher standard of living, better education, and a higher team spirit with a new sense dignity in the town. After realizing these consequences, the town will never want to go stand to the old ways. rightful(prenominal) as Mill would do, Peter fights for the greater good of the confederacy.In doing so he is providing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people no matter if a few people have the risk of being injure from the contaminated water. Dr. Stockmann had good intentions to nurture the people in his town, but by standing up against the lower classes he actually made more harm than if he would have kept silent, these consequences include causing a revolution in the town, the town losing him as a doctor, his daughter acquiring fired from her job, and his son not being able to go back to school. Dr.Stockmann had good intentions, but the horrendous outcome makes his efforts immoral according Mill. Peter Stockmann cause to be perceived a few to save many, whereas Dr. Stockmann wanted to potentially hurt many to save a few. Mill would conclude that Dr. Stockmann had to the duty to protect the health of humanity, but if he was not able to do so without keeping the happiness of society he should have let his duty go. Being raised with the ideology of treating your neighbor as you would treat yourself leaves me with a bitter t aste in my mouth after arguing that Peter Stockmann was just in his course of actions.Family is family, and no matter how different views enkindle become I do not agree in expulsing a family member. Democracy in society is a very controversial issue, because it brings up the question, are the decisions made by the masses the right decisions? Morally oration the masses can be wrong. Like Dr. Stockmann said, was it morally right for the masses to crucify Jesus? The more the issue is confronted it almost makes sense that society is willing to hurt a few to save so many. I find this story very interesting because it brings up multiple issues.
1.This is My Five-Part Thesis Statement for Essay 2 Drinking inebriant is like taking a do drugs. It is a form of drug abuse, and drug addiction. This is a worldwide problem that many people are snarly in. in that location are good prove of alcoholic drink if it is in wee amounts, and in moderation. On the some other hand there are unspeakable short and long term effects. There are certain factors that pass on to a person becoming an alcoholic, as they are Genes, Physiologically or brotherly factors. The effects that a person will get are all based on certain factors like, how much and how ofttimes alcohol is consumed, the age of the person, when the person started and how long they have been drinkable for, gender, their family history and choke merely not least based on their health.2.This is my split up twain Topic Sentence Lately scientists have been saying that a secondary bit of alcohol with dinner is not only okay but it is also good for you. In addition this is true in moderation.3.This is my Paragraph Three Topic Sentence If you take advantage of that and drink in excess there are effects that you should be aware of also and contrary to some beliefs, alcohol is a depressant.4.There are several factors that pay to a person becoming an alcoholic, as Genes, Physiologically or Social factors.5.Once you start to become addicted to alcohol you are considered an alcoholic. In other words there are many long term effects that come along with potable lots of alcohol for a extended amount of time.6.In conclusion alcohol can affect your life in a good or bad way depending on how you drink, how often you drink, and how much you drink. It is betterto drink in moderation, and responsibly. This normally means drinking only 1 to 2 glasses a day with a meal, and to also have a healthy diet that goes along with that. other than the health benefits of drinking alcohol are gone, and replaced with some horrible side-effects. There are certain factors t hat contribute to a person becoming an alcoholic, as they are Genes, Physiologically or Social factors but everyone can make their own decision on what drinking in moderation is and what drinking responsibly means, but everyone should be informed with the facts.Read Also analytic Rubrics for EssayPart 2 Interview Sources and Possible Titles7.I will reference these three people for this essay1.Manuel Ochoa, alcoholic2.Gustavo Alcatar, a retired partner of AA3.Melissa Soler, psychology8.1.Why Do Some People go Alcoholics?2.How Bad Can it be to Become an Alcoholic?3.When People Start to Abuse Their Body to Become an Alcoholic?
Monday, February 25, 2019
The solar day she go forth me home alone. Realizing when ones tikehood is becomening to fade is not an aftermath that can be targeted at an exact era in an one-on-ones life. Childhood begins to vanish differently for people based on culture, age, and life experiences. My childhood started to end when I was 7 years venerable the day she left me home alone. My m other had just become a single start out running from an a potive relationship with my fix and had to begin life a bleak.My strong dependency on my incur and the illusion of being an only child, due to me being the youngest of several older brothers and sisters, make the purview of growing up a nightmare. Realization of my soon approaching maturity date became evident, as I had to face the difficulties of being distant from my mother, listening to join soci everyy with peers, taking on more(prenominal) than than self-responsibility, and the building of self-confidence. These trials and tribulations would help to channel me to a higher level of maturity and a true recognition of life.Although what I endured forcefully was difficult, the most challenging would be my distancing from my mother the trade protection that linked me to my youth. Severing the bond between a mother and child is a tough task at any given point in time of life. This was especially difficult for my mother as I was her only daughter and youngest child. Being a single mother and working two jobs created prodigal hardship for my mother. Her constant struggle with taking me to her place of work left her with no other choice than to leave me at home.This was the first time that I had to truly cope with being outside from her and it was an immense class on my emotional state. My next challenge ensued when I had to begin expending time with my father. Several years after my parents legal separation my father later remarried became a new man, giving the judicial trunk the o peglegion that I should see my father mo re often. My pursuit into the new world cognize as my fathers house, otherwise known to me as hell, forced me to spend countless weekends and summers with my new family, my yard siblings and step mother.This unfamiliar change was the cause of my strong desire to stick around sheltered beneath my mothers wing but sort of nature would drive me towards a more self-reliant road. Be that as it may, I would not change overnight. I still struggled to be away from my mother when it came time for school. Most children struggle with the concept of going to school. divergence ones comfort zone and journeying into a strange new soil is of great significance in an individuals life. Most children learn to adapt with in the first year or so. I however, was the censure to the rule.Attending public education was an adjustment of epic proportions in my young life. I struggled with the disregard for several years. Every year school started I wished to be expunged from existence. My problem was not with the other children I worked well with others. Rather my issue was with the thought of being away from my mother. Although I got along smashingly with the other children, I did not converse very much. My close relationship with my mother led me to believe she and only she was someone I could truly lift my ideas with.I also did not speak with others because their tales of their inhabits at home seemed somewhat anomalous to me. Tales of brothers and sisters, close families and a home consisting of a mother and a father seemed unusual. Although I had brothers and sisters, we were distant. I knew of my father, but he and my mother did not live under the same roof. Another issue I had to face was my anomalous mother. What made her abnormal was the fact that she was a single, hard working mother. This unfeelingness from my peers and societies opinions gave me the impression that I was an outcast.Eventually I would come to literalize that I was not the only soul in the worl d under such circumstances. culture to open up to others caused me to realize that I wasnt alone. Interacting with other children comparable myself helped me to be more social and gain greater connections with my peers. I then(prenominal) had the ability to deal with others, but still lacked in transaction with myself. responsibility is an inherited trait. It is not cast upon an individual in one item place or time. At certain stages of life, responsibility starts to become more important and has a greater affect on a persons growth and development.From the time I could talk, my mom began teaching me the sizeableness of responsibility. Nevertheless, my first true test came when I was left alone at home. While my mother was away, she entrusted me with the task of preparing my own food. Learning to cook for myself gave me more confidence and helped me to be less dependent on my mother. As my mother became aware of my newly obligated personality, she decided to entrust me with g reater responsibilities. aft(prenominal) moving, my mother did not want to switch me from the school I was be so I remained there until the end of that school year.In the beginning, she rode the public bus and walked down the neighborhood to get me. After noticing that I could reside at home alone and care for myself my mother decided that I could administer walking down the neighborhood to meet her at the bus. Being with my peers was hard, dealing with my stepsiblings was an ordeal, and being at home alone was unimaginable. Nonetheless, the most unbearable of them all was walking alone surrounded by strangers and an unfamiliar environment made me uneasy.Eventually, I came to realize that it was a part of life, part of being responsible and that I was growing up. It hit me like a ton of bricks. I was finally learning to deal with my several issues. The responsibilities laid upon me helped me to be more understanding of life and the ways of the world. My self-dependence began to g row as well as my self-confidence. Growing out of childhood and into adulthood does not instantly come on many people experience several events that transpire before they name adulthood.In spite of that, there are always significant moments that have to pin point the beginning of ones journey. For me this consisted of being left to balk for myself at home, learning to adapt socially with individuals amongst me and beginning to deal with real life responsibilities. These several adversities strengthened my confidence, stability, and self-reliance, as well as my learning ability on the world and others. My childhood and my attachment to my mother where far from part relatively the experience had opened to door to a new grade of life, helping me to grow further from my old mind frame.
An particular at Owl Creek Bridge, is wholeness of the best American short stories and is considered Ambrose Bierces greatest trifle. First print in Bierces short romance collection Tales of Soldiers and Civilians in 1891, this composition is about Peyton Farquhar, a conspiracyern farmer who is about to be hanged by the Union Army for trying to set the railroad couplet at Owl Creek on fire. While Farquhar is standing on the bridge with a rope around his neck, Bierce top offs the lecturer to think that the rope snaps and he f alls into the river, and then makes an amazing escape and finally returns to his farm, to be reunited with his wife. in time the ending of the news report is totally different, in fact, Farquhar is hanged and these imaginings take place seconds to begin with his death. Ambrose Bierces trick ending succeeds because of the way he manipulated the text by changing the narrative blot of view from one theatrical role to another. An Occurrence at Owl Cre ek Bridge is divided into lead naval divisions, with to each one section having a different narrative form.In the first section, the originator uses dramatic narration the story is told by no one. With the disappearance of the fibber, the lecturer is now the direct and immediate witness to the unfolding drama. The subscriber views the work from the outside. In the beginning of this story the readers are informed of all the preparations for a man about to be hanged the set up for the hanging, the characters convoluted and the surroundings. The fibber gives an incredible and beautiful snapshot of the scene describing the water, the guards, and his restraints. Vertical in precedent of the left shoulder, the hammer rested on the forearm thrown speech sound across the chest- a formal and unnatural position (Bierce pg. 90, line 10).This type of narration is the least personal and the reader receives the least information on the characters thoughts and feelings. Although the w rite describes details, the reader has to fill the blanks as to what actions and events lead up to the situation. The reason for this type of narration in the first section of the story is to get the readers curiosity going. One wonders what Peyton Farquhar could have done to be hanged was he alone in what he did, why is he mingled in a military issue when he is a civil?In paragraph six and seven and through the second section, the author changes his specify of view to one which is third person omniscient all knowing. Theomniscient narrator is not a character in the story and is not involved with what happens. He imposes his presence between the reader and the story and controls all the events. From an outside point of view, the narrator provides enough information to summarize, stage and wonder. As the story evolves, the reader begins to read thoughts of the characters Farquhar, his wife and the spends. The reader becomes involved in Farquhars life as the narrator summarizes h is situation. The reader is told of him be a planter and owning slaves, that he is a secessionist and devoted to the Southern cause.Nevertheless, the narrator leads the reader to believe Farquhar and his wife are kind people, she fetched the water for the soldier to drink with her own white hands (Bierce pg.92, line 15) instead of parliamentary law one on her colored slaves to do it. Farquhars principles and devotion towards the south is explained in this section and the reader gets to know who he very is. This makes the reader feel sympathetic towards him and his wife. The purpose of the omniscient narrator in the second section is to give information of the characters and to get a glimpse into Farquhars life. The reader finds out how devoted his wife is to her husband. The reader can now continue to Farqhuar and understand how and why he got caught trying to destroy the bridge.Section three is intended to create suspense. Bierce wants the reader to believe that what is being d escribed really happens. In order for the reader to believe that what is being described is rattling happening, the story must be narrated from the characters point of view (limited omniscient point of view). With a limited omniscient point of view, the narrator limits his or her readiness to penetrate the mind of a single character. The reader may be shown the characters voice, feelings and thoughts through dialogue, monologue or stream of consciousness. As a result, the reader becomes more and more directly involved in interpreting the story.By employ this point of view all of what Farquhar is experiencing seems so real. The advantages of the limited omniscient point of view are the tightness of concentre and control that it provides. If the third section was told in an omniscient point of view, the author would have not been able to fool the reader, for he would have seen what was really happening. Seeing the whole action and knowing the soldiers thoughts would have given e xternal the ending.An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge was written in three different sections, with each having a different narrative form. The first, using dramatic point of view, describes where the action takes place. The second, omniscient point of view lets the reader comprehend the victims thoughts and actions. And finally, the third section, limited omniscient point of view creates suspense by being only in one mind. With the ability to switch from one form to another, Bierce was able to create a tale of intrigue, captivation and a twist-ending.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
In Marilyn Roberts criticism of F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby she comp bes the master(prenominal) character Jay Gatsby to another main character of another novel and movie, Tony Guarino of Scarface. Marilyn Roberts states in her criticism that the writers of Scarface utilise Jay Gatsby as a model to represent the rise of their own protagonist, Tony Guarino. Scarface is much equivalent The Great Gatsby, a classic rag to riches stories by substance of not so legal practices. Affluence, power, and lives of luxuriant ease are what these devil men portray.With money and power these men to a fault need high-status women in their lives. For Jay Gatsby the woman he chases after is Daisy Buchannan, the wife of Tom Buchannan. In the military man of Tony Guarino the woman in his life is fixd Poppy. Influence from The Great Gatsby is shown here and end-to-end the two stories, the name Poppy is a flower like Daisys name also is a flower. Poppy and Daisy are also much alike asides from some(prenominal) their names originating from a flower. Both Poppy and Daisy are shallow, self-absorbed, and deceitful.Another comparison brought up is that both women are in their own relationships not with Tony or Jay. Jay Gatsby and Tony Guarino are determined to take these women out of their relationships so that they can be together with them. Tony uses his wealth to try and win everywhere Poppy buying her clothes and dismantle a home, Jay also uses his immense wealth to try and win Daisy over which is not successful. To show their characters immense wealth the writers of both Scarface and The Great Gatsby used shirts as symbols.These shirts are used as symbols to represent the American Dream, unmeasured freedom, wealth, and ambition. The men also use the shirts to try and win over their lamb interests. In The Great Gatsby, Jay pulls out his shirts collection to show Daisy, Theyre such(prenominal) beautiful shirts, she sobbed, her voice muffled in the thick folds. I t makes me sad because Ive never seen suchsuch beautiful shirts before. (Fitzgerald). Jay does this to show off his wealth, throwing high-ticket(prenominal) and high quality shirts onto the floor. The writers of Scarface made their own rendition of the scene.While touring Tonys house Poppy seems unimpressed but when Tony takes her to his bedroom he pulls out his shirt collection and throws them on the floor, Poppy eases up when shown the shirts. Both men are also considered as gangsters in Roberts criticism. Jay runs an illegal alcohol bootlegging ring and Tony runs a drug cartel. Along with Gatsbys death Tony is also killed for pursuing the woman he thinks he loves and not by a fellow gangster. Tonys death like Gatsbys is rooted in jealousy. Jay Gatsby is killed by a jealous husband (Wilson) thfdafa at thought Jay killed his wife (Myrtle).
The poem Invictus by William E. Henley, and the novel anthem by Ayn Rand, both(prenominal) have common themes that discuss the importance of identity element in each society are forbid and belief of the awe-inspiring word ego and the word I should be eliminated from the vocabulary in a effort to eradicated the true evil are present as individualism.One of the common themes between Rands novel, and Henleys poem is that, both of the main components of these pieces are determined to be nothing less than what they were do to be which is unconquerable. A quote from anthem that supports this theme is, They (the Golden one) looked toss into our Equality 7-2521 eyes and they held our head high and they answered the unconquered.(p.56). From this quote, the Golden one proves to debate that Equality 7-2521 is an unconquerable being, because of this determination, as well as will-power with all his doings. In Invictus, the protagonist does not see himself to be overcome by anything, e xactly to always be able to rise against his challengers. As the author states in Invictus , we thank whatever gods may be for my unconquerable soul. The leading character explains in this quote how he is invincible, and that this gift was given to him, so and then it pottynot be taken away. I can relate this to Anthem , by recapping what happened to Equality 7-2521in his past experiences with the transgressor got burned alive, which made him steadily directed and immovable, such(prenominal) as in Invictus.Also, in both Anthem and Invictus, the protagonists of the story and poem, went with physical pain, which I also look at has a lot of activated pain involved as well. In Anthem Equality 7-2521 states this excerpt, They separate our clothes from our body, they threw us down upon our knees and they tied our hands to the iron post. The scratch line blow of the lash felt as if our spine had been cut in two. (p.64). From this quote we can gather that Equality 7-2521 had physi cal pain from the lashes, save also emotional pain behind the reasoning of the abuse.I believe that this had a hug Individuality, this word is what makes a person who they are. It can be molded into whatever one chooses it to be. It also puts you in control of yourself and guides you through your existence. Being individualized is what makes us human. We are not all the same. In the novel Anthem, the thought of individuality is a constant theme throughout the book. The main character, Equality believes he is cursed by being an individual, at first. Many similarities can be found between the novel Anthem and the poem Invictus.Invictus is Latin word for Unconquered. Another character, Liberty, will begin to mobilise Equality unconquered in the novel. She believes he is unconquered because his appearance to her is different. She believes that because he is different that he will not be held down by the conformity surrounding him, therefore unconquered. Your eyes are as flame, howeve r our brothers have neither hope nor fire. Your mouth is cut of granite, merely our brothers are soft and humble. Your head is high, but our brothers cringe. You walk, but our brothers crawl. his poem Invictus, Out of the darkness that covers me, Balck as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul.These two quotes alone depict individuality truly well and are similar in the message in anthem AND THE POAM INVICTUS. Towards the end of the novel I think that Equality will specialize the reader of how he will no longer live for anyone but himself and those that he loves and love him. It is my mind which thinks, and the judgment of my mind is the only searchlight that can find the truth. It is my will which chooses, and the choice of my will is the only edict I must respect. I ask none to live for me, nor do I live for any others. These quotes are very similar to the last two line of Invictus. They read I am the master of my fate I am the capta in of my soul.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Being variant volition wholly result in tears I bottomland understand your point of view although I cant help but disagree. Your mortalal experience may be line up, moreover, it is only one story remote of a realistic 7 billion You said that world unique will only mean you ar picked on, but in my opinion this is not true as people formula up to someone with a clean style and it is often emulated, how else would fashions start?Perhaps one of your main points is how it is unbidden to blend in, follow the crowd as anything else will result in being bullied. Hans kruuk did an experiment where he marked an x on a gazelle, then release it back into the wild. This study showed the marked animal became a tar witness and was killed every time. You then applied this to school children, saying they hold out it does not pay to be different. I say you cannot comp be human and animals. Animals eat each other, it is their way of life in contrast human being eat animals because we are the superior race bullying is a example evil, not a natural evil.A group of scientists at Oxford University carried out a three-year study looking at why cats and kittens are stimulate of their owners, and if this is instinctive or simply developed in childhood. Their results showed that on clean 90% of cats who are scared of humans were bullied as a kitten. No cat naturally tries to blend in, however it tries to make relationships. When kittens have ignominious owners, it resulted in them becoming scared of all humans, as they might get hurt again.If you are a victim you become conscious and canvas to fit in to stop the event re-occurring, therefore this disproves your narration that every(prenominal) school child knows instinctively it does not pay to be different this behaviour is learned. You say that no one should help someone being bullied, because they will become a target too, so we keep away and we turn away when the predators pounce. Lies. Front-page news headl ines are often about heroic heroes who have saved someone from being bullied. SusanDichander, a German civilian, won a Nobel peace award last year. She saved over 2,000 Jewish children effectively, being bullied by Hitler. She is now honoured to own the reward and her friends are family are so proud that she went against the majority and trusted instinct Another statement you made was that it is better to blend in, if you look wish well everyone else, you will not be victimised. I say what if you cannot swap the way you look? Being the only black child in a blank school would be hard, but you cant change whittle colour.Disabled people cannot blend in if you are in a wheel chair, then there is nothing you can do to change that. To be liked is not about blending in, its not about what you look like, but its about your personality. Finally, I would like to applaud you for your article, you made some persuasive arguments but in contrast, bulling for children in 2012 is extremely di fferent to the torment received in the 1970s. With the development of engine room Facebook, Twitter and all social networking sites cyber bullying is a new usage.Bullies who are too scared to say something face to face, or simply do not want it to escalate into violence can send close messages over the internet anonymously (or so they think). This has been made a lamentable offence, the police can track down where the messages are coming from, and that person may be prosecuted. You proved in your article, being different can also end in making new friends who like you for who you sincerely are, these endure for life surely, thats a difference worth celebrating.
In todays ordering, it is important that a person knows how to respect other wads culture and what they need and what they like to play out since their culture may be a little different than what a certain person lived up to. If a go with becomes sensitive and complies with the needs of its client, the amount of customers allow double and it piddle more pro rack ups in the end. Other cultures do not eat nitty-gritty, like the Muslims. They only eat meat that undergoes the process of halal. Halal is a process that Muslims do before killing an animal fit to be eaten.They pray to Allah and ask him to bless their meat before they give the bounce partake of it, The name of Allah has to be mentioned before or during slaughtering, since the Creator is the granter and taker of deportment the name must be said by a member of the Moslem faith (Meat Science at Texas A&M University). Investors to a fault have to think of modalitys to present their products to the public, if they want to advertise their products beside celebrities and famed multitude, or if they want to advertise their products with facts and people who digest prove that the products they argon selling ar healthy.They also have to take note of how their customers counterbalance to pistillate management. In some countries, they still do not heap women as mens equal, and if they would advertise using a female figure, the business might not attract as m whatsoever customers as the company assume they would. In every business, an investor wants to invest in overseas land he/she has to think of a strategy thoroughly and enumerate the consequences of his/her actions.In a decision, investors must include the culture of their target bowl and consist their bestsellers into it while presenting them in ways where people would want to buy their products at an instant. Incorporating the companys products to customers culture Before companies could co-ordinated their products to customers culture , they should research on what the clients culture is. If the clients are Jews or a Muslims, they are most likely not to eat pork, and if they eat meat, a certain process is made before they could berth the meat edible.A company would take a shit more Muslim and Jew customers if it hires a consultant who leave alone give it further knowledge on how they want their sandwiches to be, it could also key more about their culture and analyze what is good or what they can incorporate with their bestsellers. That consultant should be able to tell them how they can enlighten the meat edible for Muslims and Jews the company should know how to make meat a Halal and clean. In some parts of the US, the impact of having Muslims in their area increases the consumption of sheep and goat.It is because the Muslims prefer eating them rather than pork and beef, Many sheep and goats are slaughtered in Muslim backyards during various celebrations (Meat Science at Texas A&M University). If companies like underground incorporates Halal and Kosher meat in their menu, it would in spades benefit them in the future, since their menu would no longer exclude people who have different culture. The Muslims and Jews who are not used to buying their products will want to buy and eat their product without second guessing or feeling guilty because of their cultures restrictions.Incorporating the companys view to target areas culture In other countries, some people do not like the concept of selling products that incorporate their advertisements with intercourse, like how Carlse younger has presented its products. Christians in particular think that the advertisement of Carlse Jr. is a take down and instead of gaining customers, it has lost some due to its advertisement. Although Carlse Jr. did not gain the Christian community and those who do not want dirty advertising, it has gained those who estimate and like seeing their favorite celebrity devour hamburgers.Some people flat think th at the way Carlse Jr. advertised their product was ingenious, Despite protests from rise watchdog groups, like The Parents Television Council, this is just plain smart marketing in todays world (Kiley 2005). Other countries do not even recognize female authority. The company would have a intemperately time giving women higher positions because there are still societies that view men superior to women and giving a managerial position to a female would mean that the company is disobeying the countrys culture.Some people in society do not even recognize discrimination against women because that is the way they were brought up, that is why the workplace often deal with discrimination, Gender stereotypes lie at the heart of many of our perceptions of the workplace and the people that operate within it (Heilman & Welle 3). diversity in hiring due to gender must be demolished. If companies comply with societys culture of pushing women down, it will never change. Companies must armed c ombat the norm and even if they lose a few customers, at least the moral of the company would remain. Today, equality is sought out by many.The company might lose people who discriminate women, but they would surely gain people who are for equality. Conclusion If a company like Subway patterned their management to a society whose culture is discriminative of women, they would by all odds gain that society but lose customers who view men and women equally. notwithstanding if a company like Subway chooses to adopt the culture of people and use Halal and Kosher meat, Subway would expand their usual customers. In the end, the company should only choose to adapt to cultures that would not hurt any one or discriminate because it could lose more than it can gain.Works cited Kosher and Halal. Meat Science at Texas A&M University. whitethorn 20, 2010. Web. Kiley, David. Carls Jr Paris Hilton Ad Spicey and Smart. May 25, 2005. Bloomberg Businessweek. May 20, 2010. Web. Heilman, Madeline E. and Welle, Brian. Formal and Informal inequality Against Women at Work The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Research in social issues in management Managing social and ethical issues in organizations. Vol. 5. Westport,
Friday, February 22, 2019
edith cowan university faculty of business and law mba 5712- hr designation 1 JOB ANALYSIS A CORNERSTONE OF ALL HRM PRACTICES AND ACTIVITIES MUTEMA CHELLA 10157835 LECUTRER MR. D. PHIRI entering Date 13th April 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION3RECRUITMENT AND remembering3 SELECTION4 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT4 execution MANAGEMENT5 REMUNERATION MANAGEMENT6 PROMOTION OF WORKPLACE SAFTY AND HEALTH6 CONCLUSION7 REFERENCES8 INTRODUCTION To discuss why assembly line abstract is sometimes said to be the cornerstone of all the human resource management practices and activities, six Human Resource voices or practices atomic number 18 listed and then showing how communication channel epitome data is utilised in each of these activities. Job analysis is aptly called so because succeeder or failure of the human resource function in an organisation washstand directly be attributed to the consequences of labor analysis (Siddharth, 2009 October).Siddharth (2009) further contends that Job analysis encompasses understanding and closely evaluating the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed by an individual in execute a finical role. Its like performing a personalised Profile abstract of an invisible person. Once performed, lineage analysis would cast open a plethora of answers to how Recruitment, procedure Management, Training, Compensation benchmarking and several early(a) processes should follow for the officer on the said rail line. Job analysis refers to procedures for organizationatically understanding the subject field that engenders done in an organisation and the basic goal is to understand what people do, how they do it and what skills they need to do the work tumesce (capital of Mississippi & Schuler, 2003).According to Jackson & Schuler, the chairs of the hire out analysis are used to put break through job descriptions. A job description spells out inborn job functions, describes the c onditions in which the job is performed and states special hang backing or certification requirements for the job. For employees, job description produced through job analysis serves as a guide to work behaviour while for supervisors and managers a job description serves as a guide to surgical operation evaluation and feedback. This es study therefore focuses on trying to show that job analysis generates the foundation upon which to build virtually all components of HR system identified as follows. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTIONRecruitment involves searching for and obtaining qualified appli heapts for the organization to consider when filling job openings (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). In the function of enlisting the job analysis would jell recruitment sources and methods. To find the most suitable employees for jobs and thus for the organisation as a whole, those involved in employee recruitment need to be fully apprised of the relevant job description and person specification whic h potentiometer only when be derived from comprehensive job analysis (Baired etal, 2008). Effective programs for recruitment should inveigle suitably qualified appli merchantmants and discourage those who are unsuitable.One would therefore say that knowing a defined set of competencies allows one to more(prenominal) than expeditiously target, inwardly a candidates population those competencies for recruitment. SELECTION Selection is the process of obtaining and employ information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for foresightful or piteous-term position. Jackson & Schuler (2003) contend that it begins with an sagacity of the requirements to be met by the new hire, including technical aspects of a job and the more difficult to quantify organizational need (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). Applicants are then assessed to determine their competencies, preference, interests and personality.For productivity and retention, companies such as Southwest, Linc oln Electric, Honda GE, and Toyota hire on the al-Qaida of whether an individual matches the job requirements and the corporate culture (Jackson & Schuler, 2003) To do a proper selection of the candidate to be employed it is vital to establish the essential features of the job descriptions and person specifications to allow for objective and easier opinion of applicants (Baired etal, 2008). Selection criteria moldiness be demonstrably job relevant and equitably applied, to facilitate comparison amongst candidates and the matching of candidates with jobs. They are invaluable in the initial short listing of large numbers of applicants, employment testing, interviewing and subsequent referee checking (Baired etal, 2008)through very well selection practice ensures that employees are capable of exalted productivity and motivated to stay with the organization for as presbyopic as the organization wants to employ them. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In general, an organisations training a nd schooling practices are its intentional efforts to improve current and emerging process by helping employees acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitude required of warlike work force (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). Rapidly changing technology, foreign competition, and changes in organisational schema and strategic business objectives are putting pressure on organizations to train and develop employees for competitive advantage.This requires careful attention to needs assessment, program development and implementation, and evaluation. Four types of types of needs analysis-organisational, job, person, and demographic-are designed to diagnose systematically the short and long term human resource needs of an organisation (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). Any discrepancies between the experience, knowledge, skills and abilities demonstrated by a job holder and the requirement contained in the job description and specification or list of competencies for that job provide clues to development needs (Baired etal, 2008). Training & development is merely the development and assessment of said competencies for both the employee and the employer.However, without job analysis the organisation would have no way to know what to teach train and develop and when to do it. exploit MANAGEMENT A execution of instrument management system is a formal, organise process used to measure, evaluate, and influence an employees job related attributes, behaviours, performance results (Arvey & Murphy, 1998). Two components of performance management system are (a) performance meter and feedback for individuals and team, and (b) the rewards component of total compensation (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). A well designed performance measurement and feedback process directs employees attention toward the most important tasks and behaviours.It informs employees about whats valued and provides information about whether the employees behaviour and results meet the expectations of managers, colleagues, and customers (Jackson & Schuler, 2003) To stress the magnificence of performance management, it is said that It is estimated that if companies could get 3. 7% more work out of each employee, the equivalent of 18 more minutes of work in each 8-hour shift, the gross domestic product in the United States would boyfriend by $355 billion, twice the GDP of Greece (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). The job description and person specification, the result of the job analysis, provide the criteria for evaluating the performance of the holder of the job.Performance Management can therefore be said to be that by knowing the competencies required for each job or job family allows HR (or management) to track employee knowledge, skills and abilities and go bad them accordingly to wherever they may have the most impact within an organization. These competencies may also be tied to other organizational-level criteria for added impact and a validity check. As has been mentioned this is as a result of job analysis REMUNERATION MANAGEMENT Compensation or remuneration typically accepts a mix of several elements, monetary and non monetary forms of rewards. Monetary compensation allows direct correctments such as salary, wages, and bonuses, and indirect payments such payments to cover the cost of surreptitious and public insurance plans.Nonmonetary compensation include many forms of social and mental rewards-recognition and respect from others, enjoyment from doing the job itself, opportunity for self-development (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). Many workplace agreements emphasise the close relationship between job requirements, learning and development programs, passage progression and appropriate salary and benefits systems. Baired etal, (2008) further contends that inappropriate remuneration packages may reflect a need for change of job requirements or correct pay scales, often in consultation with the relevant unions. It can be said that competencies help guide compensation mode ls to a much more precise degree than more gross measures like seniority. For example, a extremely sought after software developer with very unique skills may be able to demand on the securities industry a much higher(prenominal) salary than a typical MCSE who has been with the company for X number of years. A competency based compensation model would address that. Again, a job analysis done properly will help determine pay scale. PROMOTION OF WORKPLACE SAFTY AND HEALTH A nonher of the Human Resource function is the promotion of pencil eraser and health at the workplace. Job analysis procedures can be used to identify aspects of a job that may leave to workplace injuries, and ergonomic principals can be applied to redesign the work environment (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). Workplace safety and health refers to the physical and psychological conditions of a workforce that result from work environment provided by the organisation.Physical conditions include occupational diseases and accidents such as actual loss of life or limb repetitive motion injuries, back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, cardiovascular disease, other forms of cancer and other conditions that are known to result from flatulent work environment include white central nervous system damage. While psychological conditions result from organisational stress and a low character of working life, these encompass, dissatisfaction, apathy, and withdrawal and so on (Jackson & Schuler, 2003). If an organisation takes effective safety and health measures, fewer employees will have short or long term ill effects as a result of being employed at the organization (Cooper & Neck, 2000). Both the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the Dis major power Discrimination Act (1995) of the UK require evidence-based approaches to scene physical and medical employment standards.Proven fitness related strategies include redesigning the most demanding tasks, selecting and training military force who possess the necessary physical attributes, and assessing and redeploying personnel to jobs within their capability. An essential precursor to pursuing these strategies is to conduct a job analysis to quantify the physical demands of the job (Rayson, 2000) . ). CONCLUSION Job digest is quite aptly called the corner stone of all HR activities because the success or failure of the HR function in an organization can directly be attributed to the consequences of Job Analysis. If not carried out or not conducted accurately and comprehensively the other HR processes will be unavailing and the cost to the organisation high in terms of productivity and the ability to retain valuable staffJob analysis encompasses understanding and closely evaluating the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual in performing a particular role. Its like performing a Personal Profile Analysis of an invisible person. Once performed, job analysis would throw open a plethora of answers to how Recruitment, Per formance Management, Training, Compensation benchmarking and several other processes should follow for the incumbent on the said job. Get the job analysis wrong and youll get the wrong person while recruiting, inefficient and sometimes irrelevant performance management measures, increased training expenditure, improper pay with respect to the market and a whole lot of other issues. . REFERENCES Arvey, R. D, Murphy K.R (1998) Performance Evaluation in Work Settings, Annual Review Psychology 49, 141-168 Baird, M. , Compton, R & Nankervis, A. (2008) Human Resource Management Strategies (6th ed. ). Cincinnati South-Western Publishing Co. Cooper, K, Neck C. (May 2000) The Fit executive director Exercise and Diet Guideline for Enhancing Performance, Academy of Management Executive 14(2), 72-83 Jackson E. S & Schuler, R (2003) Managing Human Resources Through Strategic Partnerships (8th ed. ). Thomson South-Western Publishing Co Rayson, M. P. (2000) Fitness for work the need for conducti ng a job analysis, Occup. Med. Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 434-436, 2000. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http//occmed. oxfordjournals. org
The Han dynasty stressed effectiveness in their tools, as well as using engineering science to frustrate natural disasters and thrive in their society. The papisticals, however, marveled at their civilizations innovations, however rejected idolizing those who behaveed with tools and crafts. The control of wet was significant in both the Han dynasty and the romish conglomerate (Docs 1 and 8). Han officials believed pissing conservation officers and hydraulic engineers should work together to prevent flooding (Doc 1). The writer requested the formation of water conservation officers in each district, and inspections of waterways, walls, etc.Along with necessary repairs (Doc 1). Document 1 is a letter from a Han government official concerning flood prevention. Considering the status of the writer of chronicle 1 and the fact that the letter is instructional, it seems reasonable to assume he knows what hes talking or so. The papists alike used water engineering, aqueducts, t o supply the cities with water (Doc 8). Frontinus boasted about the abundance of water for public and private uses (Doc 8). As a water commissi hotshotr, the writer of document 8 only talks about the positives of the water system, possibly to make himself look respectable in the eyes of his superiors.An spare document from a super acid citizen of Rome describing how aqueducts positively affect their conduct would support Frontinus, who only provides an official government point of view. Both the Roman and the Han officials wanted to use engineering science to control water for the benefit of the citizens, solely for the Han dynasty, it was more necessary to thrive. Huan Tan, an upper-class Han philosopher, speaks of Fuxi, the wise emperor moth and inventor of the comminute and mortar (Doc 3). After Fuxis invention, there was an improvement in engineering with the creation of water power (Doc 3).The attitude toward technology in this document is as technology as a gift from en lightened emperors. Huan Tan, because a philosopher, would praise technology from the emperor as Confucian philosophy views the emperor as a kind father-figure. Huan Tan may gift compose this document praising the emperor as a way of flatter the current government in hopes of achieving a higher official position. standardized Fuxi, Tu Shih, governor of Nanyang, was also a wise and enlightened attraction (Doc 4).Tu Shih true a water-powered blowing-engine that was a labor-saving device, to facilitate cast-iron agricultural implements. Tu Shih loved the common people and wished to save their labor (Doc 4). engineering in this document is also seen as a gift from enlightened leadership. The writer of this document could have been trying to please the emperor in order to reach a higher position in office. Both of these documents show that the Han dynasty saw technology as a way to improve in their society and for the rightness of their people.Cicero, an upper-class Roman political leader describes those who work with their hand as vulgar or common, believing that gentlemen do not work with their pass on (Doc 5). Cicero speaks of hired-workers and craftsmen as having unfit occupations (Doc 5). Technology is perceived as necessary in this document, but not fit for enlightened minds. Cicero cannot accurately judge technologys impact because he is a member of the elite and does not work with technology. According to Seneca, an upper-class Roman philosopher, technology takes being smart, but not enlightenment (Doc 7).Seneca does not believe in the importance of soulfulness technological creations and believes there is a difference between those who work with their hands and those who work with their minds (Doc 7). Both documents show negative Roman attitudes and are corrupting towards technology. Huan Guan, a Han government official, suggests that good government should correct the situation of sub-standard tools (Doc 2). earlier than him being negative towa rds technology, he is being negative towards the governments role. He believes that technology is vital to peasant production and is the governments responsibility to support it (Doc 2).Plutarch, a Roman high official describes Roman leader, Gauis Gracchus improved road building in a glorifying report (Doc 6). Technology match to this document has a practical side, but also one of aesthetics (Doc 6). As a high-ranking official, Plutarch praises another political leader possibly yearning to obtain a promotion. Both documents show technology as necessary, but the Han dynasty shows a need for technology and the Roman conglomerate makes improvements that are not necessarily vital to their society.Additional documents by women would have been facilitatory in exploring whether there are similarities or differences in Han and Roman attitudes according to gender. Also, documents by workers or the lower class would have given divers(prenominal) perspectives toward attitudes and views on technology, instead of high officials who do not personally work with technology. The Han dynasty, because of natural disasters and the good of their civilization, were pushed to improve on technology while the Roman empire admired their great, unneeded innovations.
Thursday, February 21, 2019
The second Inaugural was writing during the time of the Civil War. The struggle between the north and the south continued. President Lincoln seemed to be mostly collateral of the north, which stern be concluded based on cosmos contend to slavery. Regardless, the president was trying to save the union, even though it would mean not freeing the slaves If I could save the union without freeing any slave, I would do so (Lincoln, p. 1, 1862). Especially in his letter to Horace Greeley, one can buoy see how eager the president was to save the union.With the Quote Both demand the same Bible, and pray to the same God and each invokes his aid against the opposite Lincoln is emphasizing on the unity that the division actually has, which is being a good Christian and reading the bible. The second half of the quote shows the misuse of the bible. Invoking god to aid against the other is not what prayers are for the cleric has his own purposes and may not even be interested in resolving t his issue. Instead, according to Lincoln, it is even possible that god disapproves of slavery and the well-mannered war is part of their punishment.Once again, an attempt is made to let the throng realize that slavery is unethical and may even upset god. In conclusion, both sides are Christian, which should be bounding, as religion is supposed to produce people closer together. Secondly, prayers are not used for what it should. America has muzzy sight of what is important according to god, which is peace (with slaves) and not aiding war. I rent the quote as significant, because of the impact has. The people are again reminded on values of true Christianity, which even in modern America, one can lose sight of.
Parties matter in collapse be crusade they influence the actions of elected tallyicials. But scholars also none that lawmakers from the uniform ships company may non select together. Party cohesiveness has varied on the whole over time approximatelytimes companionship members stick together on whatever key selects, at former(a) times they ar no much likely to suffrage with fellow semi insurance- reservation ships company members than with the op do. Parties keep back various gist at their disposition to encourage members to cooperate in achieving a fellowship program. Sometimes these tools be ablely compelling that individual members may nates the companionship program at the expense of their constituents interest.However the case is quite polar in European fantanary remainss of authorities where ships company cohesiveness is indispensable for the implementing of organisation policies that the fellowship in strength wishes to overturn. Al though companionship cohesion in Ameri terminate regime has risen because of intra society heterogeneity and the realignment of the South (Hetherington and Larson), the caller area and unity is not nearly as cohesive as those tack in parliamentary systems. This is in broad part due to the particular that the tools of the ships company trioers in severally system are different.In Parliamentary systems, because the risk of not vote in terms of troupe could lead to the collapse of the take disposal activity and government system, fellowship leaders melt down to overhear more achievementive tools at their disposal to use in promote caller cohesion/ educate. Party bailiwick or cohesionis the ability of a policy-making troupeto get its members to support the policies of their company leadership. Party discipline is essential for all systems ofgovernmentthat allow parties to mark governmental top executivebecause it determines the degree to which the governme ntal organization will be affected by the governmental processes.Party cohesion is closely related to company discipline (Aldrich). Distinctly, however, it is essentially unified behavior reflecting the interacting inducements of individual legislators, whereas caller discipline is the outcome of a strategic game vie within political parties, in which legislators who are companionship members respond to rewards and visitments determined by whatsoever internal fellowship decision-making authorities. In political systems opposite than Ameri backside presidential popular system, straying from the fellowship lines can sequel in the comely and/or expulsion of members such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as in thePeoples Republic of mainland China (Aldrich).Party discipline tends to be extremely strong inParliamentary systems such as inEuropean countries in which a choose by the legislature against their troupe is infrastood to cause the governmental collapse of the p resent regime (Huber). In these situations, it is extremely rare for a member to vote against the wishes of their caller. Party leaders in such governments often founder the potence to expel members of the troupe who violate the caller line.Weak society discipline is comm still more frequent in congressional systemssuch as the united States congress where power within in the society is more democratic than the authoritarian system findn in parliamentary governments, with leaders dictating order to the members to keep company suit. In these American legislatures, it is routine for members to cross party lines on a given vote, typically following the interests of their region (constituents) or following other members of a borderline group within their party.In America the risk is not that high, with party disagreement just results in the up conniption of the party elites without line up damaging cost except for the withdrawal of their support. Party cohesion and party disci pline are very distinctive under parliamentary government, where a lack of cohesion and/or indiscipline among parliamentarians be yearning to government parties may jeopardize the very existence of the government. Certainly from the perspective of making and suspension governments, levels of party discipline are very high in European parliamentary democracies.There are very few examples indeed of parties that have been half-in, half-out of government, in the sense that legislators from the same government party have voted in different ways on key legislative motions of confidence and/or investiture. In this sense parties do go into and come out of government in a unified manner. In the American democracy, this just isnt the case. Politicians have more allegiance to their regions and constituents than to their party. Because of the way the nomination system hightail its. Party nominations no pertinaciouser rest in the masss of party elites only when in those of the public. indee d its better for ones political career to greet to the public and not to party. According to other scholars heighten this opinion by adding the main influence of party discipline is not on the votes on specific roll calls but on the choice ideologically of the party (McCarty, Poole and Rosenthal). This suggests that members will vote in line with their ideals rather than their leadership. To come to this ending they observed changing patterns of roll call voting among party-switchers and descendred that legislators appear o coordinate on roll calls because they change polity preferences to reflect those of their parties. Thus the question get goings, why do members of political parties still bother to practise in cohesive manners? Political scientists and elites have attributed this behavior to a trinity of solutions. Electoral incentives for legislators that arise from the value of a party label, strategic incentives within the legislature that reward legislators who behave in a unified fashion, and the ability of party leaders to implement a system of rewards and punishments are all attributed undercoats (Hix and Simon).Political scientists argue that electoral incentives might generate emergent party cohesion. By creating a type or brand that politicos can chimneypiece themselves under in order for voters to infer information about candidates in elections. Recognized legislators join political parties to signal form _or_ system of government positions to voters, doing this so long as it amplifications their chances of election or re-election. Voters make inferences about candidates policy preferences just now by observing their party social station.Identifying candidates with their party and ignoring what candidates might actually express about their own policy preferences. Candidates in these models do have inherent policy preferences and so prefer to join parties comprising like colleagues (Krehbiel). This is because the party policy p ositions that are part of the brand with which each member is associated are influenced by the positions of all party members.In this system it benefits a candidate to vote on party lines in order to be associated with a specific regime policies, outcomes, and therefore successes. Party membership involves costs that arise from this incentive. There are costs arising from associating with a party label indicating a unique policy position that differs from the ideal point of the member and of world associated with a party that will actually implement this position if it is in a position to do so(Snyder and Ting).Since the primary focus of this type of work is on the electoral phase of the political game, and despite occasional references to party discipline, this procession involves no explicit model of intraparty politics except for the assumption that the party policy platform is chosen by either a supercilious leader or simple volume voting by party members (Snyder and Ting) . In addition, this incentive assumes that politicians are allowed to join, and to remain within, any party they choose. The only filter on party entry in such odels is party policy itself which, combined with the deadweight costs of party membership, discourages legislators with very divergent policy positions from joining the party (Snyder and Ting 2002 95) This means that the underlying process being modeled is a type of sorting or the partitioning of voters amongst parties, but the logical engine of this model could also be employ to explain the sorting of politicians between parties on the assumptions that party positions are some function of the positions of party members and that politicians want to link up to the party with the closest position.While this large body of work gives us useful intuitions about electoral incentives for legislators to affiliate to parties, the main lesson is that electoral incentives may well make a party label a valuable commodity. Thus, if a partys decision-making regime can intensely threaten to withdraw the party label from party legislators if they fail to abide by party decisions about legislative behavior, thus this will make those decisions easier to enforce.On this perspective, party discipline is about legislators responding to explicit or unverbalised threats by party leaders to impose electoral costs by withdrawing the party label, by casting votes in otherwise high-priced compliance with party policy. The resources party leaders in both parliamentary and US federal government and parliamentary government context can deploy to structure the incentives of legislatures in a way that ensures party discipline include control over electorally valuable party labels (party identity) and control over sought-after perquisites in the legislature.However, this incentive structure has an authorised refreshing dimension under parliamentary government, arising from the fact that the legislature typically functions as a recruitment pool for the executive, and political ambition of its members are at the forefront. In Parliamentary governmental system, party leaders have the tools at their disposal to make or break candidates if they dissent, because the stakes are so high. If government parties cannot moderate firm party discipline, thusly they cannot forbear a expert hold upon office.When legislative parties do move into government, control over the allocation of all important(p) government jobs, whether these are cabinet or junior ministries or other key patronage appointments, typically rests in the pass on of a very small number of senior party politicians, who can and do use these offices to reward loyal party members and who can and do punish mavericks by denying them the rewards of office. However, in American politics party leaders do not have the authority to simply dismiss a candidate.They may only throw their endorsement or support candidates with funds and become king makers. It is wild to deal that Nancy Pelosi can tell a traditionalist democrat to go away. She can allow withhold resources (money and her send for learning support). But this wont be enough if the candidates constituents carry him through and through with(predicate) to victory. legislative incentives also coexist which derives from improved expectations in relation to a range of legislative payoffs that accrue to legislators who belong to larger rather than smaller cartels or calculuss of legislators.A large part of the relevant literature has been concerned with the authority of party in the US Congress, and how the main concern of those elected is to relapse legislature and having a single legislative party commands a volume position. The main legislative resource is the ability to capture a majority coalition of legislators. This is achieved by commanding the allocation between legislators of agenda setting legislative offices, such as committee chairs.On this argument, the power to make such allocations is delegated by party members to the party power structure, which can use this power to enhance party discipline, which in turn feeds back to enhance the value of the party label in the electoral game. This is important because the legislature is the main political arena in which legislators seek to fulfill their objectives, policy and otherwise. US parties impose discipline on their members by manipulating scarce agenda-control resources is in contrast an option influential argument, ( Krehbiel (1993, 1998).This holds that what looks like legislative party discipline is an essentially emergent phenomenon. US legislators choose which party to affiliate to on the basis of their inherent policy preferences in effect joining a party of like-minded individuals and then quite voluntarily behaving in the same way as these on the scandalise of the House without the need for any externally compel party effect. Legislators are voting the same way because t hey like the same policies, or because they are responding to the same non-policy incentive structure adjust in place by the party hierarchy.There are devil roll calls put in place to ensure this outcome (Snyder and Groseclose). On one hand there are lop sided roll calls. In which first, legislators will conduct these as a forgone conclusion and, second, that party leaders will see them as covering no rationale for the (by assumption costly) deployment of party discipline. On the other hand there are close roll calls, for which co-ordinated legislator behavior makes the difference between winning and losing. There is strong record suggesting that the party effect is much higher for close than for lop-sided roll calls.They infer from this that US parties can and do influence the behavior of their legislative members when this makes a real difference, and do not attempt to do so when it does not. coherence seems to be closest when the party leadership has publicly identified as a priority, and find much more of a party effect on these than on issues that are not party priorities. Party cohesion in parliamentary government is important to the proper function of government because it essentially in lamest terms makes or breaks government.Under the constitutional regime of parliamentary government, that is pervasive in Europe, almost certainly the most important role for the legislature arises from the fact that the executive gains and retains office as long as it maintains the confidence of the legislature. This requirement is constitutionally manifested in the parliamentary vote of confidence/no confidence in the government (Huber 1996 Lijphart 1992, 1999). The executive under parliamentary government, furthermore, the cabinet of ministers bound together under the constitutionally plant rule of collective cabinet responsibility.The stability and effectiveness of the government thus depends upon the ability of government parties to maintain disciplined beh avior by party legislators. Effective party discipline means that a government is not defeated either on votes of confidence/no confidence or on key pieces of legislation because some legislators who belong to government parties vote against the government. Thus, while the vote of no confidence is the constitutional foundation of parliamentary government, the behavioral foundation can be seen as party discipline.If the government parties maintain firm discipline on the part of their legislators, and if they control sufficient legislative support to take office in the first place, then they can maintain themselves in office, with firm control over the spotless political process and facing few legislative impediments to the implementation of their policy and other objectives. Conversely, if government parties cannot maintain firm party discipline, then they cannot retain a secure hold upon office. The key point in all of his concerns the huge incentive in a parliamentary government system for senior party politicians who themselves will often be members of the government to maintain firm discipline over the members of their party. What is so striking about incentives for party cohesion and discipline under parliamentary government, as opposed to presidential government, is that these incentives cast the role of party leaders in a solely new light. Party leaders tend to play explicit and implicit roles. Party leaders tend to be seen as managers who essentially offer coordination and enforcement services to party members.As agents of their party, such party leaders have incentives to shirk. compel party discipline, by whatever means, is thus the fulfillment of obligation The reason such models of party discipline can look bizarre and unrealistic in the context of parliamentary government is that an agency/expensive-discipline model of party leadership (Cox McCubbins) seems implausible in a constitutional environment where party leaders are senior politician s who are the key players in a series of interlocking at the essence of the political process.Not only do party leaders make the really key decisions about making and breaking governments, elections, but they also enjoy the benefits of office when this is achieved whether these are perquisites such as the hefty check, the government jet, or the ministerial Mercedes, or opportunities to slant policy outputs in preferred directions as a result of controlling vetoes and agendas. In a nutshell, maintaining tight party discipline is passing incentive compatible for party leaders under parliamentary democracy.Indeed it is difficult to think of reasons why party leaders in a parliamentary government system would not want to maintain tight party discipline. only in the matter of a voting on a highly divisive, sensitive, and cross-cutting issue, such as gay marriage or stem cubicle research for which it is against party interests to be identified with a single unadorned position then a legislative free vote can be declared on the matter and legislators can be allowed to vote with their consciences. But the orderly ability to switch free votes on and off is an indicator of firm party control over the behavior of party legislators (Aldrich).Parties are institutions in their own right. They are endogenous institutions, but parliamentary governmental parties are more deeply embedded into the constitutional rules of the political game of parliamentary government than a mere behavioral coalition of legislators. They are political clubs with their own set of rules to abide by. They are head by their own system of rewards and punishment. In parliamentary government, membership of the party is completely dependent on the party label and the incentive of legislatives to be associated with the party brand or label. Cohesion and coordinated voting create this benefit.In which individual members have an incentive to take part in coordinated behavior if they can get away w ith doing so. As mentioned before, if members choose not to act in this fashion, they can be exiled from the party and thereby denied entre to the party label. Acting in accordance to party can result in the placement of ones name on the party ballot. Parties have the right to endorse particular candidates as official party candidates. Under the list-Proportional Representation electoral systems that are very common in parliamentary democracies, parties absolutely control addition to and candidate placement on the party list.Therefore, parties in parliamentary democracies directly control access to the party label on the ballot. If denied this, a putative candidate must be admitted to and endorsed by another party, or must form a new party, or must run as an independent. In addition, access to legislative perquisites, whether these are physical office accommodation, speaking time on the floor of the house (perhaps to impress constituents at the next election), or paid positions wi th access to considerable resources, such as committee chairs.There are thus voltaic pile of opportunities for party hierarchs to reward and punish individual legislative party members as they go about their daily lives. No doubt in the U. S. A. the military campaign towards the establishment of a disciplined and responsible party system is mostly confined to the academic world. In the presidential system in US government rewards and punishment do indeed exist but not on the same level as in the parliamentary government (Cox and McCubbins). Party elites cannot simply cast away political hopefuls directly due to the constitution and the format of the political system.Power is not solely in the workforce of elites, but the major American parties, bailiwick and state, are not base on mass memberships. Only here and there in the unify States are attempts made to fix a large-scale party membership on a regular dues-paying basis and thus to correspond to the European parliamentary scale (Jackson Moselle). Party cohesion is absent even among the party workers and all the discipline that exists among party organizers before elections ceases to exist after elections. The riddle stems from American attitudes about party.Most Americans identify themselves with a particular party but do not feel that they are obliged thereby to work actively for that partys nominees (Laver). Anyone can legally qualify himself as a party member just by going through some registration procedure. Unlike the parliamentary system where you must engagement party allegiance before even having ones name considered on the ballot. No state demands work on behalf of a partys candidates or contributions to its campaign funds as prerequisites for becoming a legal party member (Giannetti and Laver).Structure of the American party has impact on party cohesion. The party structure in America consists of a hierarchy of permanent party committees from precinct to national committee. The National Committee which stands at the apex is made up of one man and one fair sex from each of the states picked by some kind of machinery within its State organization. The on the face of it hierarchical structure does not produce party cohesion for power is decentralized and each unit is independent and needs not approbation form the others.For example, the lead of the County Committee does not depend for his post on the State Committee and the latter hardly depends for its tenure or powers on the National Committee. To add to decentralization of power is the absence of uniformity in structure. The most striking feature in the party organization in the U. S. A. is that it is regulated by State laws while in all other democracies party structure is determined by the party itself. Diversity in State laws regarding party organizations naturally does not give scope for political discipline for the parties in America.In addition, primaries took the power of selection away from a stripe of leaders and activists and placed in by law in the hands of the voters. Unlike in Parliamentary systems where the local party organization selects the candidates, the national party organization is finally obeyed. V. O. Key express the view that by the adoption of the direct primary the organization was stripped of its most important function, that of nomination. Every political party has two divisions, the organizational and legislative, and party discipline is as essential in the latter as in the former.If party cohesion is judged on the basis of the roll-call vote and the frequency with which members of a party differ among themselves, the index of cohesion in U. S. A. may be said to be very low. The relatively low cohesion among republican and among Democratic Congressmen is mainly due to the non- parliamentary system of Government. The Congressman in U. S. A. need have no fear that division in the ranks of the party will lead to the dissolution of the legislature unlike in the Parliamentary system. So the significant feature with the roll-call vote in the American Congress is the absence of party cohesion.Each of the two parties is divided into several factions and the factions in the two parties join or oppose one another irrespective of party labels, depending on the issue put for voting (Krehbiel). The decentralized structure of the parties makes a member depend for his success in elections more on his constituency than on his party. However, party cohesion in American government is not nonexistent, even though it is not as strong as those under the parliamentary democracies system. Each party selects a floor leader, whips and a Caucus Chairman creating a somewhat centralized structure that in practice increase party cohesion.Commonly, the party groups cohere more tightly on some party dividing issues than on others. For example 4,658 members of the House in 11 selected raw sessions only 181 or less than 41 per cent voted with the opposing party more often than with their own. The proportion was slightly higher in the Senate. prohibited of 847 senators in 9 sessions, 63 percent secured their parties on a majority of the votes. (Jackson and Moselle) For there is a tendency for most Republicans to be in voting opposition to most Democrats on controversial issues, showing strong party discipline.Indeed, American party cohesion is on the up rise. Realignment of the South played a role as the South has consistently voted conservatively since the Nixon days (Hetherington and Larson). Another key piece is the ideological differences among the two major parties (Democrats and Republicans) are greater today than they have been in years pass. Scholars have historied that the more ideologically extreme, the higher the cohesion. As parties have more interparty heterogeneity, each party has developed more intraparty homogeneity, which has given rise to roll-call voting (Hetherington and Larson).Strong party leaders also play a role in this phenomenon. Members in each party endow their respective party leaders with powers to chuck out the policy agenda. Ideological unity in the 1970s with House Democrats, cause them to place the Rules Committee under the control of party leaders. Thus grown the house Democratic Caucus more power to oust disobedient committee chairs who stood in the progress of the partys initiatives. Demonstrating, American parties have been adjusting to their weak party model, and adapting in a way to influence party cohesive as exhibited so strongly in the American government.It is the drop off consensus that Parliamentary government is indeed stronger in party discipline and cohesiveness than its American presidential system counterparts. The main reason for this phenomenon rests in the power of the political elites in each party system and the tools the system provides for their disposal-party label, patronage, etc.. In American politics, elites can only indirectly influence party-line voting as granted to the present political system. However, in parliamentary government, elites directly have the authority to dismiss or elevate the position of their members, thus encouraging party cohesion.Bibliography Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago University of Chicago Press. Cox,Gary, and Mathew McCubbins 1993. Legislative Leviathan. Berkeley University of California Press. Cox, Gary, and Mathew McCubbins. 2005. Setting the Agenda amenable Party Government in the US House of Representatives. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, forthcoming. Gallagher, Michael, Michael Laver and whoreson Mair. 2005. 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