Friday, December 27, 2019
Today in age almost everything we do involves math, including jobs, bills, school, etc. Mathematics is required in the field of nursing mainly because of calculating dosages. It is used every day by nurses who need to figure out the precise quantity of a medication for a patient. If a medication error occurs, it could mean life or death. (Sobek) For example itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to figure out how to calculate the dose in your head if the patient calls for a pill in 25 milligrams, but the pill only comes in a 50 milligram size. You give half the tablet which requires division. However, if the medication to be given is based on the patients weight in milligrams per kilogram, then youd need to multiply in order to find out the correct dose. (Sobek)Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, a female who is 5 feet 7 inches should weigh 105 plus 35 additional pounds (7 inches multiplied by 5 pounds) for a total weight of 140 pounds.( Bryant) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s often unclear from your interactions with a doctor how much math she is using in order to treat you. While not all doctors have to use math as directly and frequently as engineers do, all of them must understand the complex mathematical equations that inform different medical treatments in order to administer treatments correctly. When a doctor administers radiation therapy to a cancer patient, the radiation beams have to cross each other at specific angles, so that they harm the cancerous tumor without harming the surrounding healthy tissue. The precise numbers for these angles must be calculated mathematically.( Fletcher) Cancer tends to respond to any drug by mutating so that its DNA is no longer affected by that drug. Oncologists and medical scientists have decided to target cancerous tumors with many different kinds of drugs at once so that the cancer is unable to respond adequately. They use complex mathematical models that plot the speed and timing of the cancerÃ¢â¬â¢s different mutations to figure out what combinations and dosages of different drugs should be used.( Fletcher) Plastic surgeons are turning to mathematics to take the guesswork out of efforts to ensure that live tissue segments that are selected to restore damaged body parts will have enough bloodShow MoreRelatedHistory of Management Thought Revision17812 Words Ã |Ã 72 Pages Taylor and trace developments in management thought in Great Britain, Europe, Japan, and the U.S.A. up to about 1929. Taylor is the focal point, but we will see his followers as well as developments in personnel management and the behavioral sciences. Henri Fayol and Max Weber will be discussed, although their main influence came later, and we will conclude with an overview of the influence of scientific management in its environment. Chapter 7 The Advent of Scientific Management FrederickRead MoreAmpalaya Cupcake15271 Words Ã |Ã 62 Pagesingredients used to make the cupcakes were measured out by cups (Food Timeline Web). On the early part, cupcakes were called Ã¢â¬Å"numberÃ¢â¬ cakes, for reasons that they were easy to remember by the measurements of ingredients it took to create them but today cupcakes have expanded to a wide variety of ingredients, measurements, shapes and decorations. Cupcakes were convenient because they cooked much quicker than larger cakes. When baking was down in hearth ovens, it would consume a lot of time to bakeRead MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words Ã |Ã 339 Pagesthe Marriott School, Brigham Young University. He is widely published in strategy and business journals and was the fourth most cited management scholar from 1996Ã¢â¬â2006. is a professor of leadership at INSEAD. He consults to organizations around the world on innovation, globalization, and transformation and has published extensively in leading academic and business journals. is the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the architectRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 Pagescourse more effectively with assessment, assignments, grade tracking, and more manage time better study smarter save money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUS gives you everything you need to personalize the teaching and learning experience. Ã » F i n d o u t h ow t o M A K E I T YO U R S Ã » www.wileyplus.com ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of theRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesmymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagessustain those factors in the face of the business slowdowns and major fluctuations that challenge the longterm continuation of profitable earnings? As we continue to experience the twenty-first centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, social, and political churning, how will these driving factors be influenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identity or travel under any particular national passport? What will be the effect of the rapid gyrations in marketsRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 PagesComments on the earlier 1993 edition, published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, which is owned by Cengage Learning: There is a great deal of coherence. The chapters build on one another. The organization is sound and the author does a superior job of presenting the structure of arguments. David M. Adams, California State Polytechnic University These examples work quite well. Their diversity, literacy, ethnic sensitivity, and relevancy should attract readers. Stanley Baronett. Jr., UniversityRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words Ã |Ã 604 Pagesentity so that each functional area of the company has an HR manager assigned to it. The HR managers were expected to be key contributors to their areas by becoming knowledgeable about the business issues faced by their business functional units. Today, HR managers participate in developing business strategies and ensure that human resource dimensions are considered. For instance, the HR manager for manufacturing has HR responsibilities for 600 employees. In that role she contributes to workflowRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 PagesNunn for all the effort that she put in to the preparation of the manuscript. Strategic Marketing Management Planning, implementation and control Third edition Richard M.S. Wilson Emeritus Professor of Business Administration The Business School Loughborough University and Colin Gilligan Professor of Marketing Sheffield Hallam University and Visiting Professor, Northumbria University AMSTERDAM Ã¢â¬ ¢ BOSTON Ã¢â¬ ¢ HEIDELBERG Ã¢â¬ ¢ LONDON Ã¢â¬ ¢ NEW YORK Ã¢â¬ ¢ OXFORD PARIS Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAN DIEGO Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAN FRANCISCO Ã¢â¬ ¢ SINGAPORERead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 PagesThe advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974,
Thursday, December 19, 2019
A common theme has emerged from the past readings. Feminist theory and intersectionality. I have taken some WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s studies courses before so I am familiar with feminist theory. Intersectionality is trickier for me as I am a white, female, privilege Canadian woman who has not faced any oppressions for what I look like. The only oppressions I face are for being a woman and there is no intersectionality with having only one oppression. I will explore both feminist theory and intersectionality and finish off with battered womens syndrome in this paper as well as talk about my own personal experiences and how they relate to the course. Feminist theory is a theory that tries to see womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues as individualistic and that all womenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦All skills and experiences are learned, no matter what biological factors there are. The next topic of intersectionality is one I am less familiar with. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t experience a lot of intersectionality other then I am a female that suffers from a mental illness. I also donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a nuclear family; but none of these come close to the issues suffered by women of color, or women of a different sexual identity. Intersectionality is important in social work because we have such a diverse demographic of people (disabled, vulnerable, children, etc.) that itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to remember how oppressions work in conjunctions and become individualistic personalities. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also important for social work as you should be trying to combat these oppressions where you can, Ã¢â¬Å"The colonial devaluing of aboriginal people is manifested in child welfare practices where aboriginal children are given to specialist [white] familiesÃ¢â¬ (Ross, pg. 123) realizing that in social work practice, some issues might be systemic in nature and you should work to overcome t hose bias that people have. The more oppression someone has, the more intersectionality applies to them; but this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t supposed to be the oppression Olympics either. Just because someone is black and disabled doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they have more oppression than a queer woman. This pertains to my own life because I am very privileged and I remember finding out someone in my high school class didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a car in grade 12, which was surprisingShow MoreRelatedFeminist Theory : A Feminist Life1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWriter, feminist theorist, and professor Sara Ahmed wrote Living a Feminist Life alongside her blog feministkilljoys.com. She started writing it before and completed it after her resignation in 2016 from her post as director of the Centre for Feminist Research at Goldsmiths at the University of London after a lengthy struggle to hold the school accountable for incidents of sexual harassment on campus (Ahmed, n.d.). Her resignation, and location both in and ou t of the academy informed a lot of theRead MoreFeminist Theory Of Feminism1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseffect change in the world when only half of it is invited to feel welcome to participate in the conversation ( Watson, 2014). In the feminist perspective, which is an extension of feminism, there is support of equality for both women and men. Feminism is a belief that women and men have equal rights and opportunities. There are many different branches in the feminist perspective, one of the most interesting one is intersectional feminism. Intersectional feminism believes that experiences of classRead MoreThe Exploration Of Feminist Theory Essay1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790Ã¢â¬â¢s. The traditional interpretation of this theory is based on the common ideology of feminism within the Communication world. Illustrating gender inequality the feminist theory analysis into the social field s of politics, business, media platforms, and social normalities. Research traditions include socio-psychology and semiotics due to the cause and effect relationships that help create socialRead More The Feminist Theory Essays887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Feminists rely chiefly on the contention that the traditional analysis of world politics is fundamentally gendered. Gender-sensitive analysis begins with the premise that societal institutions are made by humans and are therefore changeable by humans. Feminists systematically deconstruct the notions traditionally held by realists and taken for granted as how the world works. Gender-sensitive analysis takes many factors into consideration that the realist does not. As history dictates, theRead MoreFeminist Social Theory Essay1965 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFeminist social theory ought to challenge the ideals of Classical social theory embodied by the work of authors, such Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Simmel. Such traditional values tend to exclude women from their social analysis of the modern world, as women were considered non social agents. In support of this, Durkheim claim that men were product of society, whereas women belonged to nature, (Harrington: 2005, p.236). Thus, feminist social theory embrace post-enlightenment principles, focusing on valuesRead MoreSocial Reaction Theory And Feminist Theory Of Crimes1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Social Reaction Theory and Feminist Theory of Crimes are the subject theories I am going to review, examine, and explain. I will be discussing the evolution of social reaction and labeling theory, which is mainly concerned with how individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal identities are highly influenced by the way that society has a tendency to classify them as offenders. I will also be reviewing the various forms of feminist theories, which began as reactions to the lack of reasonable theorizing about why femalesRead MoreThe Feminist Theory Of Animal Studies924 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFeminist scholars are concerned with a broad range of issues and topics for discussion. Taking this into consideration, animal studies is a new and edgy field, especially in the context of feminist theory. The general findings of this paper include patriarchal establishments, and speciesism as an institution of oppression influencing and interconnected with sexism. However, this literature review will not explore the connections of animal studies within queer theory due to insufficient research,Read MoreFeminism And The Postmodern Feminist Theory1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe evolution of feminist theory from a modern to a postmoder n viewpoint stands to correct the injustices of historically liberal feminism. For some time, grand narratives have governed the ideas of self and gender from a single experience of Ã¢â¬Å"manÃ¢â¬ . Traditionally, modern feminism aimed to eradicate the hegemonic theory of inferiority by women to the male gender. Postmodern feminism aspires to eliminate categories of gender altogether, for the social construct of gender is considered to disregardRead MoreFeminist Theory Applied to Hamlet2809 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesRepresenting Ophelia: Women, Madness, and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism Elaine Showalter Though she is neglected in criticism, Ophelia is probably the most frequently illustrated and cited of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s heroines. Her visibility as a subject in literature, popular culture, and painting, from Redon who paints her drowning, to Bob Dylan, who places her on Desolation Row, to Cannon Mills, which has named a flowery sheet pattern after her, is in inverse relation to her invisibility inRead MoreFeminism Final Exam : Feminist Theory1851 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAlonia Lewis Prof Barnes Feminism Final Exam May 4, 2016 In feminist theory there are two ways to study and research epistemology. There is the Essentialist (standpoint) theory and there is the Social constructivist (post structuralist). The essentialist epistemology is to view certain roles as being the way they are because that is the way that nature has intended it to be. While the post structuralist standpoint is viewing knowledge as if it is all man made. It is to say that everything is
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Drama portfolio two Essay Pieces of work, including a song Hotel California, a section of a play king Leah and also a picture of two people at the fair ground. We had to devise a play around these three pieces of work. During my play I have tried to incorporate several different dramatic elements we have learnt through this year. These include, trigger movements, monologues, freeze frames and ageing within in the play. The key piece my group concentrated on was the picture. I decided the picture can be expanded and will include the song as well. I found It quite easy after this to come up with a starter idea that this play could be about. I found it easy to begin with the picture as from the first time I saw it, I believed they could be mental or have a multi personality disorder. I have also tried to incorporate this in our final performance. My unit two story line is about being trapped. This is regarding a woman trying to take control of her emotions, as they are splitting her apart and trying to make her do different things. Our first of eight scenes introduces each character by giving them each a turn to speak about what they are worried about. Following this all of my group sit in a triangle and explain why they are here and what made them like this. The purpose of this scene was to tell the audience about our life so far, and create tension so the audience are eager to see how this affects us for later in the play! Next we give the audience some back ground information about how we were like when each emotion was younger. Our fourth scene consists of Chris (the angry emotion) shouting at certain members of the audience and scared going over to apologise but always end up running away until Claire stirs trouble! This is one of the main sections of the play because it helps us show the audience why the woman is having trouble controlling her emotions how she wants to! This continues to the bully scene straight after that is the duologue between scared and angry. This scene was put in to create Character tension and make people see how the emotions are fighting. We then come to the final scenes this consists of the woman getting rid of the emotions and afterwards feeling scared and alone, with out them! We choose this ending because it meant we could show that she has been fighting for so long its not what she wants any more!! Within the play our characters were themed on emotions, the character I created was scared. Scared, shows the main characters frightened side of things. This also means she can see eyes in the wall, people and objects moving that arent there, we have allowed room for people to read more into this character and come out with different things. Because with scared seeing things moving in the walls it could mean the main character is partly mentally ill! This fits in nicely with the purpose of the play as scared is one of the emotions the woman is fighting off! My character changed dramatically in rehearsals, due to the fact for the first few weeks I was meant to be positive and then the play changed slightly so scared was needed more. Although during the main section of rehearsals my character grew. It grew in terms, of power and emotion it brings to the play also a sense of belonging within this certain persons head. When we performed our play first time I was told, my voice kept to the same pitch, volume and tone through out. I decided to change this before we performed the re-do to increase my marks.Ã On the 26th November my character changed, to become scared. This is because one member of our group changed groups and left us with 3 people. During this lesson the whole play changed and we had to try and incorporate the whole story line we had in our new group! This was hard. My character had gone from being positive and happy. With a bubbly voice, high and loud. To becoming scared with a faint voice, still high but very fast and dull! Although this changed when I had a section I had to shout in ITS NOT MY FAULT in the scene that now appears in 6th place!
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Introduction The recent wave of globalization has transformed business operations on global scale. International businesses have been compelled to modify their products and services as well as management strategies to enable them meet the needs of this modern generation. As such, the banking industry has not been spared at all.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International Management: International Business Plan Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, unlike the traditional trend when banks only concentrated in offering commercial services, modern banking calls for diversification of services to include investment, insurance and pension plans, underwriting securities and portfolio management. On the same note, although Citibank enjoys enormous branch network globally, it has been equally trapped in this mayhem. As a result, the bank has put in place strategies to improve its international presenc e by expanding into emerging markets. On the same note, product diversification has also been employed by the bank as one of the expansion strategies. Citibank prides itself in the history of international banking for being the oldest operator to venture in international marketing (Deloitte, 2006, p. 14). The company was established in New York way back in 1812. However, it began its international operations in 1902 having been elevated to position of the largest bank in United States banking industry (Cleveland Huertas, 1985, p. 112). It commenced its initial international presence by investing in Asian markets in countries like Manila and Shanghai (Zweig Wriston, 1995, pp. 74-82). The expansion was rapid and heightened by major acquisitions of already established banks such as International Banking Corporation in 1918 and other subsequent mergers with FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s loan and trust company. Hence, by 1929, Citibank had already assumed sterling position in international banking ( Cleveland Huertas, 1985, p. 112). It is imperative to mention that Citibank operated under different names until 1980s when it adopted its current name (Zweig Wriston, 1995, pp. 74). Moreover, in 1998, it started operating under Citigroup Inc. and it is under this umbrella that the bank has grown to be a giant player in international banking. It has always remained ahead of competition as illustrated in the figure below (Grosse, 2003, p. 24). Figure 1. Citigroup Major Competitors for the last 20 yearsAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Definitely, the path to CitibankÃ¢â¬â¢s success has not been easy. However, the road ahead is not smooth at all as international banking sector becomes more complex due to numerous globalization challenges and opportunities (Ammann, Gemes Lenzhofer, 2010, p. 4). The effects of globalization which have been more pronounced in the 21st centur y have attracted new challenges for businesses since they have to keep up with the trend to avoid being redundant in the contemporary banking world (Hufner, Metzger Reichenstein, 2000, p. 66). The latest technology in the banking sector has facilitated identification of new market segments, development of customized services as well as opportunities for capturing new markets (Kim, 2010, p. 46). However, the same technological innovation has attracted its own share of management challenges (Kim, 2010, p. 48). Citibank is not an exception in the sense that despite its success stories in the past, the new era might bring devastating outcomes. It is against this background that this insightful analysis was conducted with an aim of establishing challenges of international banking in 21st century. Moreover, this paper provides the much needed business plan guidelines that may enable Citibank to survive amidst myriad of challenges likely to be faced international banking. Study method To facilitate the success of this case study, data was collected from credible secondary sources which included authentic websites, books, financial magazines and reputable financial consulting companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ reports and the justification of each source is explained below. Euromoney Ã¢â¬âthis is very resourceful for this case study because of its long standing reputation in financial publications focusing on the banking industry Datamonitor- is a company that specializes in businesses analysis in six key industry sectors such as health, technology, automotive, energy, consumer markets and financial services Wall street journal and financial news magazine are also reputable for their objectivity in business reporting. Emerald and Ebsco Host online databases provide recent peer reviewed articles on all subjects and hence they are very relevant in this case study. World Bank and OECD journal (financial markets trends) are very relevant for this case study because these reports cove r diverse global issues. Booz company, a leading consulting firm on management issues with a high reputation in financial analysis. Citibank is also very insightful especially the Investment research and analysis section which provides current reports about the organization performs across all regions. Organizational Analysis Ã¢â¬â Citibank products and Services Citibank operates under the wide umbrella of a giant financial services company known as Citigroup (Grosse, 2003, p, 16). The company offers consumer and corporate banking services via wide network of over 1,700 branches which are spread worldwide in over 100 countries (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 4).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International Management: International Business Plan Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These branches are interlinked via strong electronic system and ATMs as well as the World Wide Web. The company is headquartered in New York. It is further subdivided into sub brands such as Citicorp Investment services, Citiphone Banking and CitiTerm life insurance to facilitate smooth delivery of wide array of services. Citibank mostly concentrates on banking, lending and investment services. It serves wide range of clientele ranging from individual consumers, institutional and individual investors, large corporations and governments to small businesses (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 6). In order to facilitate delivery of the above services, the company has streamlined its operation under three major sectors namely personal finance, small business and corporate/institutional sector. However, most of these products and services tend to overlap across the different sectors. For instance, insurance and credit cards are available across the three sectors. As highlighted above, Citibank is rigorously branded and each of the brands offers wide range of selected products and services. The Citicorp investment services offe rs basic banking accounts and investment services such as mortgages and asset management. The banking accounts are further subdivided into savings, checking and college savings categories. Checking accounts are very flexible and they offer different rates depending on the average balance under each category. Therefore, customers have an opportunity to select a checking account within their reach (Grosse, 2003, p, 16). Similarly, the savings account also varies in terms of interest earned and Citibank encourages their customers to maintain large balance by paying attractive interests to big savers. The college savings account allows parents to deposit money for their children until they reach college level of education whereby the amount is paid in installments (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 4). On the same note, CitiTerm Life insurance specializes in business and personal insurance while CitiPhone Banking enables its consumers to access banking services via phones (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 4). However, Citibank card division is much diversified and offers quite a number of credit card solutions to businesses and individuals. This credit card services is one of the CitibankÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest point and they have diversified them to incorporate each and every need of their diverse customer base. The card services falls under three subcategories namely college, value and reward cards. The most popular are value cards since they offer low interest rate of 11.24 % (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 6).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, reward cards charge slightly higher interest rate of 14.24% but it has numerous benefits to consumers through the various reward schemes that are earned depending on frequency of usage. The college cards category offers students wide range of credit cards to choose from such as Citi Dividend Platinum and Citi Platinum Select. Each of the cards attracts myriad of benefits and opportunities to users (Citi, 2011b, par.4). Consequently, Citibank has realized significant role of internet to business and by so doing they have embraced online banking services whereby consumers are able to access wide range of their services without the need for physical contact (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 4). Through their effective website, Citibank.com, consumers are able to apply for various Citi Cards, open and access accounts among other functions (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 4). As mentioned above, Citibank originated in the United States. Besides operating in the U.S, domestic market its pre sence is greatly felt in other parts with most of its operations being concentrated in Asia markets such as china, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Singapore and Philippines (Gkoutzini, 2005, p.23). In addition, it has several branches in Europe. Latin America, Middle East and Africa and also its growth vision is to expand in emerging markets in these regions (Citi, 2011b, par.5). International Market Analysis The fact that Citibank presence is felt in over 100 countries indicates that it enjoys a wide market share in international banking. However, a SWOT analysis is necessary to portray the extent to which its strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats affect its business operations within the international market. Strengths Weaknesses Global network Innovative product offering Citigroup support Tarnished brand name Branding problems Online operations restrictive to US clientele Opportunities Threats Emerging markets Chinese and Asian markets Online presence Click C iti Foreign exchange fluctuations Regulatory forces Market conditions Strengths Citibank operations in over 100 countries has given the organization a competitive edge in global arena and also cushioned it against huge losses in case of financial turmoil in any of its representative region (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 6). In addition, Citibank has undue advantage over its rivals because of its huge capital base under the umbrella of Citigroup. Hence management at Citibank is capable of taking huge investment risks (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 8). Similarly, Citibank innovative product offering has enabled it to remain ahead of its competitors because specifically tailored products attract large number of consumers (Citi, 2011b, par. 3). Weaknesses Recently, Citigroup, the umbrella under which Citibank operates, has been accused of wrongful practices leading to severe tarnishing of its brand. This negative perception is likely to drift away investors especially from its investment servi ces since they fear negative outcome from the ongoing law suit (Bianco Timmons, 2002, p. 38). Similarly, Citibank needs to expand its online presence beyond United States in order to compliment physical branch operations worldwide (Bianco Timmons, 2002, p. 42). Past failures in website branding has also cost the organization whereby it relentlessly attempted to sell the company under a different online brand name (Timmons, 2002, par, 8). Opportunities Citibank interest in emerging markets has enabled it to become a pioneer in highly profitable but risky markets such as Moscow and this has given it a strategic positioning advantage (Dennis, 2010, par. 6). However, the Chinese market which is on a fast lane towards becoming fully liberalized presents the best opportunity for Citibank although it is yet to make any significant impact in this market largely due to tight government regulations (Busch, 2009, p. 86). In spite of the increasing tendency towards online shopping, credit car d holders are still reluctant to provide their card details to online vendors (Mullineux Murinde, 2003, p. 70). Therefore, in order to encourage usage of its credit cards for online transactions, Citibank has come up with Click Citi option that enables one to pay online without keying in confidential card details (Citi, 2011b, par. 12). Threats Economic instability following the 2007 financial crisis in the United States has created uncertainties among investors thus negatively affecting financial institutions (Busch, 2009, p. 86). This has lead to fluctuation in foreign exchange rates. As such, Citibank, being a global financial institution, is likely to be hard hit by this fluctuation. Interest rates have also dived thus impacting Citibank profits negatively. For instance, foreign exchange fluctuations in Argentina and Brazil led to substantial losses at Citibank (Datamonitor. 2004, p. 8). In addition, over the recent years, market conditions have not been conducive and the deter iorating financial performance is indeed clear evidence. To make matters worse, strict regulations in consumer banking industry are hurting banks negatively (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 8). For instance, regulations put a cap on the amount of interests that loans are supposed to earn of which failure to comply might attract far reaching consequences (Mullineux Murinde, 2003, p. 74). Foreign entry in emerging markets In spite of the above challenges, the future looks bright for Citibank if it takes the big leap towards investing in emerging markets in Asia and Middle East. According to Wilkinson (2011, par, 12), Citibank has embarked on massive recruitment drive to hire managers for the new branches that are yet to be opened in Asia and Middle East. Other banks such as Barclays, HSBC, Goldman Sachs and JP Morga have also followed similar trend in preparation for new expansion to Asia-Pacific region. These two markets are quite promising due to recent discovery of potential benefits in Islam ic banking (Divanna, 2007, p. 66). In addition, although these regions are also experiencing spill over effects of financial crisis, there is still some possibility of rebound and subsequent growth. Therefore, reaching out for these customers might prove to be profitable in the near future (Weldon, 1998, p. 46). However, Citibank has to be a bit cautious even as it enters these markets via private banking brand and introduce investment services on a later date (Wilkinson, 2011, par, 8). According to Yuksel (2010, p. 24), private banking services are highly resilient and are able to withstand economic turmoil as evidenced in continued profitability of private banks amidst current economic downturn. International Challenges Volatility of emerging markets As epitomized above, emerging markets present the best opportunity for Citibank to invest during this period of economic downturn. According to Citi (2011a, par 6), emerging markets offer greater potential for growth as compared to ad vanced economies. According to Dennis (2011, p. 5), emerging markets refer to developing countries that are experiencing above average economic growth rate which is fueled by rapid infrastructural development and large populations that provide cheap labor. EconomistsÃ¢â¬â¢ forecasts indicate that emerging markets will recover from economic down turn faster than core economies in the current year (Citigroup Inc. 2011, par, 5). A recent survey by International monetary Fund highlighted a huge disparity between core economies and emerging markets growth rate whereby in 2001 they grew by 2.2% and 6.4% respectively (Dennis, 2011, par, 8). Therefore, markets such as Central Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa will present the best opportunity for Citibank to invest. Nevertheless, emerging markets should be approached with caution because they are deemed to be very volatile (Jaffer, 2004, p. 8). Mikdashi (2001, p. 112) underscores that although past political instability and lack of t ransparency in emerging markets is slowly fading away especially in large markers like China and India, caution is still needed while venturing in these markets. Therefore, prior research is necessary to determine the volatility risk. This implies that investment managers will have an uphill task establishing whether any venture in emerging markets has potential for profitability or not. Operational Inefficiency due to limited technology in emerging markets Operations in emerging markets especially in Africa will be greatly hindered by too much paper work that reduces efficiency (Clacher et al., 2006, p. 112). This may be due to limitations in technological advancement which has been a persistent problem in African emerging markets. Clacher et al. (2006, p. 112) further underscore that paper transactions are very costly and also tend to expose banks to transactional errors and deliberate frauds. Moreover, due to lags in settlement of cheques and drafts business liquidity is highly c onstrained leading to increased operation risks. Human resource management challenges in highly technological era Over the recent years, employees have been regarded as the most important asset for organizational growth and success (Smith, 2007, p. 130). In banking industry, employees are equally important due to the fact that it is a service industry whereby customers have very high expectations. A cursory look at the new trend of online banking might despise the role of employees in service delivery. Nonetheless, Gkoutzini (2005, p. 8) expounds that they are still critical in facilitating online banking success. According to Citigroup Inc. (2011, par, 5), online consumers have very high expectations and unmet expectations may lead to organizational failure unlike in traditional banking whereby customers can blame an employee. Therefore, the challenge today is how to keep the IT staff on their toes so that they can be more vigilant to avoid service failure. In addition, these emplo yees need to be extra vigilant to protect customers from internet fraud. Otherwise, Citibank might end up losing considerable market share (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 8) International Business Strategy (Planning): Investment plan for emerging markets In spite of high volatile nature of emerging markets, it is imperative to note that benefits outweigh possible risks if the business plan outlined below can be adopted. Furthermore, neither the core economies nor emerging markets can guarantee 100% return on investment if the recent debt crisis in Europe is anything to go by (The Committee on the Global Financial System, 2010, p.6). To begin with, pooled investment strategy is the best due to minimal risks involved. Citibank bank can merger with existing financial services provider in these emerging marketing and run a joint mutual fund entity (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 8). Moreover, Citibank investment division might consider investing in Exchange Traded Fund which is usually invested via internati onal brokerage service. The latter is another option of pooled investment. However, it is crucial to mention that the latter move is rather risky due to the high volatile nature of stock markets. Introduce modern banking where absent Citibank has recorded success in implementation of modern banking equipments to facilitate transactions in core and some emerging economies (Citigroup Inc. 2011, par, 5). The same strategy can be adopted in emerging markets where such services are absent. However, great care should be taken to avoid locking out significant clientele who may be unable to use modern technological equipments (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 8). Most importantly, security concerns should be taken into consideration while adopting modern internet banking (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 12). Needless to say, such a strategy will facilitate business operations by increasing efficiency and subsequent reduction in transaction errors and fraud. Integrate human asset with technology In this era of globa lization, technology will play significant role in business operations and performance (Citigroup Inc., 2011, par, 5). According to Deloitte (2006, p. 14), banks should strive to reconnect with their customers through a combination of technology and personal service (The Committee on the Global Financial System, 2010, p.6). This implies that employees are still significant in spite of the major shift towards online banking. Although technology is the main resources for performance optimization, full implementation will require huge capital base (Busch, 2009, p. 86). To reduce cost, banks should consider entering into global partnerships on technology in an attempt to reduce initial costs (Gkoutzini, 2005, p. 8). As epitomized above, employees can either make or break online service delivery process, therefore, it is important for human resources managers to ensure that employees are motivated to carry out their duties effectively. According to Walker (2001, p. 102), employee motivat ion is anything from compensation to non-monetary benefits that makes employees loyal towards fulfilling organizational goals. Conclusion In a nutshell, Citibank is obviously a pace setter in international banking. Data collected during this analysis indicate that the bank is headed for notable success owing to its wide capital base and diverse network across the globe. However, some weaknesses still persist. Most of these weaknesses are mainly external in nature. As a critical example, it is imperative to note that businesses today are operating in a highly competitive world due to globalization which has also attracted myriad of challenges for international businesses operations. As such, Citibank interest in emerging markets appears to be an excellent initiative. However, this giant financial institution ought to approach such a move with extra caution owing to the high volatile nature of these markets. Most importantly, the management at Citibank has to come to the realization t hat employees are indeed potential assets. Better marketing strategies should be adopted to integrate latest technological platform in order to boost online marketing and banking. References Ammann, C., Gemes, A Lenzhofer, A. 2010. Private Banking: After the Perfect Storm, BoozCo. [Online] Web. Bianco, A Timmons, H. 2002. Crisis at Citi, Business Week, [Online] Web. Busch, A. 2009. Banking regulation and globalization. New York: Oxford University Press. Citi 2011a. Emerging market growth forecast for 2011, [Online] Available atÃ https://www.ipb.citibank.co.uk/citigold/index.htm . Citi. 2009. Major and emerging markets agent bank reviews. Web. Citi. 2011b. Our product expertise. [Online] Available atÃ https://www.ipb.citibank.co.uk/citigold/index.htm . Citigroup Inc. 2011. Citi Private Bank Identifies 2011 Investment Themes. Web. Clacher, I. et al. 2006. Challenges facing banking in emerging markets: A case study of the Tanzanian national payments systems. Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, 14(1, 112 Ã¢â¬â 118. Cleveland, H. B. Huertas, T. F. 1985. Citibank, 1812-1970. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Datamonitor. 2004. Citibank, N.A. Swot analysis. [Online] Web. Deloitte. 2006. Global banking industry outlook, growth solutions in changing world. Web. Dennis, G. 2011. Emerging market earnings: Holding up well, Citi [Online] Web. Divanna, J. A. 2007. Middle Eastern Wealth Management. London: VRL KnowledgeBank Limit. Gkoutzini, A. 2005. International Trade in Banking Services and the Role of the WTO: Discussing the Legal Framework and Policy Objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services and the Current State of Play in the Doha Round of Trade Negotiations. International Lawyer, 39 (4), 877-915. Grosse, R. 2003. The Challenges of Globalization for Emerging Market Firms. Latin American Business Review, 4(4), 12-32 Hufner, K., Metzger, M. Reichenstein, B. 2000. Challenges for international organizations in the 21st centu ry: essays in honor of Klaus HÃ ¼fner. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Jaffer, S. 2004. Islamic asset management: forming the future for ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a-compliant investment strategies. London: Euromoney Books. Kim, S. 2010. International banking in the New Era: Post-Crisis Challenges and opportunities. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Group. Mikdashi, Z. (ed.). 2001. Financial Intermediation in the 21st Century. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Mullineux, A. W. Murinde, V. 2003. Handbook of international banking. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar. Smith, A. D. 2009. Internet retail banking: A competitive analysis in an increasingly financially troubled environment. Information Management Computer Security, 17(2), 127 Ã¢â¬â 150. The Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS). 2010. Long-term issues in international banking: new report by the Committee on the Global Financial System. [Online] Available fromÃ https://www.bis.org/publ/cgfs41.pdf Timmons, H, et al. 2002. CitiÃ¢â ¬â¢s Sleepless Nights: The Bank Faces Lawsuits, Fines, and Closer Scrutiny,Business Week, [Online] Available fromÃ https://www.bloomberg.com/europe [Accessed 23 September 2011] Walker, G. A. 2001. International banking regulation: law, policy, and practice. London: Kluwer Law International. Weldon, L. 1998. Private banking: a global perspective. Cambridge: Gresham. Wilkinson, T. L. 2011. Managers hire for emerging markets, financial news, [Online] Available fromÃ https://www.fnlondon.com/ Yuksel, U. 2010. A Risky Mode Of Foreign Market Entry: International Portfolio Investments. Journal of Business Economics Research, 8(8), 22-32. Zweig, P. L., Wriston, W. 1995. Citibank, and the Rise and fall of American Financial Supremacy. New York, NY: Crown. This essay on International Management: International Business Plan Analysis was written and submitted by user Gracie Bradley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
What happen if any of your devices crashed? Nowadays people becoming too dependent of technologic they cannot imagine their live without technology. We losing the ability or willingness to thing and memorize, we cannot work or do something if we have not internet or study, calculate or solve problem without computer or other devices. With the rapid growth of technology, there has been a debate on how we are using technology in our life. Many people think that we are now abusing modern devices to support for our own life; while others reckon that using technology brings us just good things and make our life easier. According to what I have observed and experienced, I believe that people, nowadays, have been overly dependent on technology What about if you lost any of your devices? If just thinking about these scenarios give you anxiety, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not alone. Most of us rely so much on technology these days that losing it, even for a day, would be extremely inconvenient, and for some, life-altering. We will write a custom essay sample on Are humans becoming too dependent on technology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As a society, we have become much more dependent on the technology at our disposal. For instance, many people no longer memorize phone numbers because their cell phones have a wonderful contact list which makes that memorization unnecessary. If these people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have their cell phones in an emergency, they would not be able to contact the people they would need. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very possible that you have your husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s number memorized. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also very possible that heÃ¢â¬â¢s listed by name on your phone and you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t the faintest idea what his number is. If you lost your cellphone and all of your contacts, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very possible youÃ¢â¬â¢d have no idea how to get in contact with anyone, let alone someone important to you. And you canÃ¢â¬â¢t even look it up since cellphone numbers are unlisted. If the internet is down we cannot work because many job in our days depend of internet. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about you, but IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been at jobs where if the Internet isnÃ¢â¬â¢t working, then work comes to a standstill. How can you work if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t send an email, right? Seriously, I was sent home one day at my last job because the Internet was down. Sure, I stopped to chat with a co-worker on the way out. And during that conversation, we came up with a way to effectively tackle a work-related problem. But otherwise, work was over for the day. The dependence on the technology is too much that people are losing their ability to think and even read as people have all theÃ information they need on the internet. Their ability to think has been lost due to the use of computers as they always give us all the information we need and also our spelling mistakes can be corrected by the computers. We also donÃ¢â¬â¢t produce our own foods as productions of packaged foods have been mechanized People are slowly losing those abilities and letting machines or computers do the work for them. People are no longer required to think. If posed with a difficult or even simple problem people will simply Google it on an iPhone and the answer is found within seconds. Students are also becoming too dependent on calculators. Instead of using a graphing calculator to solve complex mathematical formulas, students turn to calculators for even simple calculations. Though calculators are important in an evolving world, it is still important for teachers to teach students how to do mental math and reasoning (Metz). While it is true that technology can largely dominate our lives and it is not uncommon to walk into the average familyÃ¢â¬â¢s house and see each sitting in front of a blaring television but on separate electronic devices it cannot be said that we would not survive without it. The technology we supposedly depend on today is all relatively new. Technology is definitely useful, and without it the world would probably not be what it is today. From computers the size of a fingernail to medical advancements, cancer deaths for example have decreased by 20% in the last 20 years due to developments in technology. Technology in general progressed at an accelerated rate in the twentieth century, an era that began with the invention of airplanes and cars and ended with space shuttles, mobile phones and wireless internet. Saying that we are overly dependent on technology is too vague a statement. It does not specify whether it refers to humans as a whole or specifically to western culture. Regardless of this, a mere 4-5% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population owns a computer. Taken out of context this figure seems pathetically small and it is important to note that only 30% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population are wealthy enough to have a bank account however it still means that about 95% of people get by just fine with no kind of computers whatsoever. Many of us regularly express a wish to escape from all of the technology we encounter on a daily basis, wealthy celebrities like Johnny Deep going so far as to buy an island with no phones or internet. Surely this is not the mark of a race that depends completely on this same technology for life? It is true that we depend on it, how many of us are ever without some sort of electronic device in our pocket, the fact that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve typed this on a computer is testament to that fact, but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think we will ever reach a point where we cannot survive without it. Homo sapiens have been around with in or around 250,000 years and weÃ¢â¬â¢ve had the internet since the late twentieth century. If there was a massive solar flare in the morning and you lost everything in your life that ran on a microchip how you would survive? Pretty easily I expect. People use technology for performing their household chores as well as for solving even the simplest mathematics. The traditional way of writing and sending letters is now being replaced with communication by the mobiles, emails, SMS, etc. Not too long ago, our previous generations got the latest news of their time through newspapers. Nowadays, we watch television or browse the Internet for the latest news. We also cannot travel on foot for only 50 meters. We need to travel on cars because technology makes us too lazy to walk for even a short distance. With every new invention, people become more dependent on technology to think for them. It would be impossible to view the world without the ubiquitous cell phone, laptop, and mp3 player. And, it would be impossible completely do away with these gadgets. The problem is people are letting their gadgets take over their lives and they are not giving an effort anymore. Maybe John Lennons lyrics should read strive for fewer possessions, its easier than you thinkÃ¢â¬ . How we use technology that is the key Technology was created to improve our lives. Today everything is possible just because of technology. Today we are modern people and we know more about technology. The point is that we, as a society, must be able to operate on a basic level without technology. Yes, technology makes our lives easier and quicker, but this needs to be taken with a grain of salt. We should live our lives with the aid of technology because we want to, not because we have to.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Audience Analysis Essay Example Audience Analysis Essay Audience Analysis Essay Running Head: AUDIENCE ANALYSIS Audience Analysis COMM 285 University of Phoenix 7 August 2010 Audience analysis is the first step in any communication process: it gives you the tools you need to shape your product and your message. In order to communicate effectively with your audience, you need to understand who they are, what groups they belong to, and what values they hold.(Locker, Kienzler, 2008) The vice president of Ann Taylor Clothing Stores had a successful approach to dealing with and learning her target audience. She researched her target audience and then divided them into groups and developed a fashion line for each target. Creating information in this manner is not unheard of in the office environment. If a company followed Ms. KrillÃ¢â ¢s pattern they would see an increase in production and effectiveness, because the workers would have intimate knowledge of the targets. There are many decisions to take into affect when developing information for a target audience. Throughout the remainder of this paper we will discuss audience levels, individual analysis versu s group analysis, and channels of communication. These basic items will assist any individual or company with developing quality information that will be retained by the employees while yielding maximum effectiveness. AUDIENCE LEVELS The first step in audience analysis is to know or discover who your audience is. As explained in chapter two of Business and Administrative Communications, most organizations have multiple levels, so it is only right that there be varied levels of organizational messages. The first level of organizational messages is the gatekeeper. A gatekeeper has the power to stop your message instead of sending it on to other audiences. A gatekeeper is typically a supervisor or section director/head. The next level is the primary audience. The primary audience will decide whether to accept your recommendations or will act on the basis of your message. You must reach the primary audience to fulfill your purposes in any message. (Locker, Kienzler, 2008) The primary audience is normally a board or committee brought together for a specific project. The next audience level is the secondary audience will either comment or make plans based of the information received. Secondary audiences can be legal te ams, inspection teams, or sales representatives. The last two audience levels are the auxiliary audience and the watchdog audience. The auxiliary audience may read and review the message but have nothing to do with the information. An example of an auxiliary audience member would be a person from the logistics department reading a report from the training and development department. The last audience, the watchdog audience, has a political or social responsibility and monitors company business for integrity and trustworthiness. Once you decided the different audience levels one has to determine how they will address them, as individuals or as a group. Each will have a different set of challenges which will be discussed below. INDIVIUAL ANALYSIS vs. GROUP ANALYSIS As a speaker it is important to have background information on the people you will be addressing. Each individual being addressed will receive the information differently; it is impossible to please all listeners when presenting. Knowing a person age and skill level will often give a person a foundation to begin planning what format will be suit the listener. Also knowing a personal job requirement can be an asset when developing information. Though all parts of the information we are sharing is important and may play into one another, each member or section may only need a portion of the entire product to move to the next step. In our age of information technology supervisors have their preferred method of receiving information. Some may choose to receive information on spreadsheets and other my want power point slides. Knowing the main receiver will ensure information is set up to maximize their understanding. When dealing with a group demographics play a major role in disseminatio n of information. Knowing pay information is irrelevant when giving a briefing, but know the companyÃ¢â ¢s target demographics will be a huge help. Another aspect to take into consideration is dominant figures of a group. Not all members of a group have the same input or knowledge on all the information being discussed. All members should be aware of the all situation, but reality is that most are not set up to be that functional. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS A communication channel is the means by which you convey your message. Communication channels vary in speed, accuracy of transmission, cost, number of messages carried, number of people reached, efficiency, and ability to promote goodwill. (Locker, Kienzler, 2008) There are many types of communication channels that are used to disseminate information in a group setting. The most often used in an informal meeting, this type of setting is more relaxed. Minutes are not taken and attendance is not normally required. Informal meetings are rarely publicized and are mainly known by those attending. Informal meetings can be held by teleconference or by small group. There is normally one person guiding the meeting along but participants are allowed to comment at any point without introduction or permission. Informal meetings may also be held away from the office setting. Many decisions are made over lunch, breakfast, coffee, or tea. Formal meetings on the other hand, are preplanned and the to pics are normally predetermined. Formal meetings also have objectives that the mediator would like to achieve prior to the end of the meeting. Official correspondence is sent out well in advance to remind and request attendance to a formal meeting. This type of meeting are held by senior company executives and attended by department supervisors or directors. The ultimate goal of communication is to pass information from one medium to another. In business this theory has been narrowed from one individual, department, or company to another. The items mentioned above are not the total answer to effective communication but will lay a solid foundation for business communication. In summary, it is important to understand what audience levels will be attending a company meeting; of the five discussed our target will be within one of them. Once the audience levels have been determined the next step is to determine the individuals of meeting or the group as a whole. Group meeting in more general and will take less time. Having a basic understanding of each individual, if feasible, will better assist with information dissemination and product development. Lastly, having a good channel of communication is key to passing along a clear, simple to follow, accurate message. REFERENCES Locker, K, Kienzler, D. (2008). Business and administrative communication. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business Law - Questions - Assignment Example When an offer is made to the offeree, he can either accept or put down the offer made to him, if he accepts the offer, this means that the second element of the contract recognized as acceptance have been completed. If a contract has to be recognized as valid, it should contain the third element recognized as consideration. Consideration is the term assigned to a promise or a factor on which bargaining takes place, consideration is offered by the offerror and whether to accept the consideration or reject it or bargain on it is entirely in the hands of the offeree. Another important element of a contract is intention; the people involved in creation of a legal contract should have the intention of creating a legal contract and not just an agreement that has not been legally created. The last element of a contract is the certainty of the contract, this means that the contract should be concise and clear in nature so it can be enforced. Increase in the use of internet to conduct transac tion between the sellers and the buyers gave way for the creation of a distance contract. A distance contract is referred to a contract in which the buyer and the seller or the parties involved in the contract have never physically been in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s presence since the start of the contract till the end of the contract. For examples: a distance contract is created when parties are involved in selling and purchasing of goods and services over the internet through different means such as email, telephone calls and faxes. In this kind of contract, the seller or merchandiser is required to provide any information to the purchaser that might influence his purchasing decision, once the to be purchaser has accepted the information, the seller is required to provide the same details in written form, the merchandise has to be delivered to the purchaser within thirty days and if the purchaser wants he can cancel the contract with seven days of the date of delivery. For example, in Th ornton v. Shoe Parking case, the customer experienced injury in the parking area because of negligence caused by the defendant, the customer received the ticket of car parking after he had installed his money in the ticket machine, the terms and conditions that applied to the car parking area were stated on the ticket and the customer was not informed about the terms before he purchased the ticket, thus, the term of no exclusion of liability in case of personal injuries caused due to negligence was rejected as according to the distance contract, all information is to be provided before the purchase decision is made (Beale, 1990, p.337). Expressed terms refer to those stipulations and circumstances that are mentioned in the contact at the most specific level and are accepted by the parties involved in the creation of that particular contract, these terms can be in verbal, as well as written, form. For example, in the case of Bannerman V White, the purchaser had entered a contract wit h the seller on the terms that the hops he was purchasing were to be used to prepare beer and should not be treated with sulphur, the seller had assured him that they were not treated with sulphur, but they were actually treated with sulphur when the purchaser received them, thus, the seller was in breach of contract as the contract clearly stated that hops
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Shift-share analysis - Case Study Example Thus, fewer jobs created 61 within the trade sector than had it been performing as compared to the Canada (Stimson, Stough & Roberts, 2006). Moreover, this has resulted in massive concern to the regional authorities due to its identification as one of the primary growth sectors within its 5-year economic. Cape Breton Sydney experienced a 5.0% decrease in the manufacturing employment from the 2009-2014 while total provincial manufacturing employment declined by 3.6%. It elaborates the massive local shift number for this underlying sector. Thus, the prevailing manufacturing sector within Nova Scotia is shifting away during the period. Moreover, it is a relatively better measure of the sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Construction industry possesses regional shift-share of 1.172 designating that there were approximately 1100 jobs created in the sector as compared in across Canada. It is the relatively better measure of the sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s development (Stimson, Stough & Roberts, 2006). The construction sector is shifting towards Halifax during the period. The experienced a 57.1% growth of the employment in the sector. Canada Atlantic Nova Scotia Cape Breton SydneyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest positive shifts were towards construction as well as other services. It is mainly shifting away from the primary industries, accommodation and food service In summation, the data depicts within the duration of the national affluence, and Cape Breton Sydney is mainly prosperous coupled with the experiencing of speedy development of a progressively expanded local economy. The trend will be primarily be determined by vigilant opinion and corresponding informed
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Influential Economic Views of Karl Marx - Research Paper Example Until lately, nearly half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population lived under authorities that claim to be Marxist. It shows that MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s works have been modified and his meaning changed to fit a variety of political circumstance. Furthermore, the fact that many of Marx writings delayed publication means it is only recently that his intellectual stature has been appreciated by scholars. Marx as an economic theorist composed the idea of communism which included all people having all the property and infrastructure. His theories played a significant part in international politics especially late 20th century during the cold war. Marx his work is unique as it polemic other thinkers frequently happened through critique. As a result he has been given in social science first great use of critical method. His attempt to distinguish key findings from ideology prejudices by use of equating metaphysics, speculative philosophy with ideology. This has placed him apart from present day philosopher s. Theory of labor value This theory is the science of political economy to show how under capitalization working people are exploited. It also shows how capitalist society operates. This value is fundamental in understanding of the capitalism economics since capitalism production of commodity par excellence. And, theory of labor value essentially explains what determines a commodity value (World Socialist Movement 2012). According to Karl, the basic unit of the capitalist economic structure is the commodity. Labor theory of value by Marx was inherited from classical school. He basically used RicardoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of value which states that commodities in... This paper offers comprehensive analysis of the contribution of the renowned social scientist, historian, revolutionary and philosopher Marx to the economic branch of knowledge.It is argued in the paper, that Marx labor theory of value has a primary role in ethnical and ideological issues. He shows that property income sources are often unearned or exploitative incomes. This is accomplished by his assumption that surplus value can only be created by one commodity which is labor. Marx consistently maintained this position through his analysis. Therefore, one can conclude that the surplus value sole creator is capital. His theory of labor value is the science of political economy to show how under capitalization working people are exploited. It also shows how capitalist society operates. This value is fundamental in understanding of the capitalism economics since capitalism production of commodity par excellence. And, theory of labor value essentially explains what determines a commodity value . According to Karl, the basic unit of the capitalist economic structure is the commodity. Labor theory of value by Marx was inherited from classical school. He basically used RicardoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of value which states that commodities in their prices. He stated that, commodities should have certain measurable amounts that should be common in all of them. Labor is one of the main thing in ensuring a stable economy. Therefore, it should be taken seriously and exploitation of workers should be minimized.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Impact of FIIs on Indian Stock Market for a period of 2006 2009 Indian economy has been witnessing a phenomenal growth since the last decade. The country is still holding its ground in the midst of the current global financial crisis. In fact, global investment firm, Moodys, says that driven by renewed growth in India and China, the world economy is beginning to recover from the one of the worst economic downturns in decades. The growth in real Gross Domestic Product at factor cost stood at 6.7 % in 2008-09. While the sector-wise growth of GDP in agriculture, forestry and fishing was at 1.6 % in 2008-09, industry witnessed growth to 3.9 % of the GDP in 2008-09. The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, on August 15, 2009, in his address to the nation on its 63rd Independence Day, said that the Government will take every possible step to restore annual economic growth to 9 %. Further, the World Bank has projected an 8 % growth for India in 2010, which will make it the fastest-growing economy for the first time, overtaking Chinas expected 7.7 % growth. A number of leading indicators, such as increase in hiring, freight movement at major ports and encouraging data from a number of key manufacturing segments, such as steel and cement, indicate that the downturn has bottomed out and highlight the Indian economys resilience. Recent indicators from leading indices, such as Nomuras Composite Leading Index (CLI), UBS Lead Economic Indicator (LEI) and ABN Amro Purchasing Managers Index (PMI), too bear out this optimism in the Indian economy. Industrial output as measured by the index of industrial production (IIP) clocked an annual growth rate of 6.8 % in July 2009, according to the Central Statistical Organisation. Significantly, among the major economies in the Asia-Pacific region, Indias private domestic consumption as share of GDP, at 57 % in 2008, was the highest, according to an analysis by the McKinsey Global Institute. Meanwhile, foreign institutional investors (FIIs) turned net buyers in the Indian market in 2009. FIIs inflows into the Indian equity markets have touched US$ 10 billion in the April to September period of 2009-10. Foreign direct investments (FDI) into India went up from US$ 25.1 billion in 2007 to US$ 46.5 Indian economy has been witnessing a phenomenal growth since the last decade. The country is still holding its ground in the midst of the current global financial crisis. In fact, global investment firm, Moodys, says that driven by renewed growth in India and China, the world economy is beginning to recover from the one of the worst economic downturns in decades. The growth in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at factor cost stood at 6.7 % in 2008-09. While the sector-wise growth of GDP in agriculture, forestry and fishing was at 1.6 % in 2008-09, industry witnessed growth to 3.9 % of the GDP in 2008-09. The Prime Minister, , on August 15, 2009, in his address to the nation on its 63rd Independence Day, said that the Government will take every possible step to restore annual economic growth to 9 %. Further, the World Bank has projected an 8 % growth for India in 2010, which will make it the fastest-growing economy for the first time; overtaking Chinas expected 7.7 % growth. A number of leading indicators, such as increase in hiring, freight movement at major ports and encouraging data from a number of key manufacturing segments, such as steel and cement, indicate that the downturn has bottomed out and highlight the Indian economys resilience. Recent indicators from leading indices, such as Nomuras Composite Leading Index (CLI), UBS Lead Economic Indicator (LEI) and ABN Amro Purchasing Managers Index (PMI), too bear out this optimism in the Indian economy. Industrial output as measured by the index of industrial production (IIP) clocked an annual growth rate of 6.8 % in July 2009, according to the Central Statistical Organization. Significantly, among the major economies in the Asia-Pacific region, Indias private domestic consumption as share of GDP, at 57 % in 2008, was the highest, according to an analysis by the McKinsey Global Institute. Meanwhile, foreign institutional investors (FIIs) turned net buyers in the Indian market in 2009. FIIs inflows into the Indian equity markets have touched US$ 10 billion in the April to September period of 2009-10. Foreign direct investments (FDI) into India went up from US$ 25.1 billion in 2007 to US$ 46.5 billion in 2008, achieving a 85.1 % growth in FDI flows, the highest across countries, according to a recent study by the United Nations Conference on Trade Development (UNCTAD). According to the Asian Development Banks (ADB) Asia Capital Markets Monitor report, the Indian equity market has emerged as the third biggest after China and Hong Kong in the emerging Asian region, with a market capitalization of nearly US$ 600 billion. The Economic scenario Indian investors have emerged as the most optimistic group in Asia, according to the Quarterly Investor Dashboard Sentiment survey by global financial services group, ING. As per the survey, around 84 % of the Indian respondents expect the stock market to rise in the third quarter of 2009. With foreign assets growing by more than 100 per cent annually in recent years, Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs) have become significant investors in global business markets and India is rapidly staking a claim to being a true global business power, according to a survey by the Indian School of Business and the Vale Columbia Center on Sustainable International Investment. In its optimistic report on Macroeconomic and Monetary Development of the economy in 2009, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) said overall business sentiment was slated for a sharp improvement from that in the April-June 2009 quarter. Further, India and China will soon emerge as the preferred destinations for foreign investors, revealed Economy.com, the research arm of global rating agency Moodys. The countrys foreign exchange reserves rose by US$ 1.28 billion to touch US$ 277.64 billion for the week ended September 4, 2009, according to figures released in the RBIs Weekly Statistical Supplement. Net inflows through various non-resident Indians (NRIs) deposits surged from US$ 179 million in 2007-08 to US$ 3,999 million in 2008-09, according to the RBI. The most recent World Bank update on migration and remittances reveals that the remittances of US$ 52 billion by overseas Indians in 2008 makes it Indias largest source of foreign exchange. India, along with China and Mexico, retained its position as one of the top recipients of migrant remittances among developing countries in 2008. FDI inflows into India in April-May 2009-10 have surged by 13 % at US$ 4.2 billion as against the previous two months driven by recovery in the global financial markets. Cumulative FDI in India from April 2000 to March 2009 stood at about US$ 90 billion. FIIs inflows into the Indian equity markets have touched US$ 10 billion in the April to September period of 2009-10. Venture Capital firms invested US$ 117 million over 27 deals in India during the six months ending June 2009, according to a study by Venture Intelligence in partnership with the Global-India Venture Capital Association. The private equity (PE) investment into the country reached US$ 1.03 billion during April-June 2009-registering an increase of 17 % sequentially-according to data compiled by SMC Capitals, an equity research and analysis firm. The year-on-year (y-o-y) aggregate bank deposits stood at 21.2 per cent as on January 2, 2009. Bank credit touched 24 % (y-o-y) on January 2, 2009, as against 21.4 % on January 4, 2008. Since October 2008, the RBI has cut the cash reserve ratio (CRR) and the repo rate by 400 basis points each. Also, the reverse repo rate has been lowered by 200 basis points. Till April 7, 2009, the CRR had further been lowered by 50 basis points, while the repo and reverse repo rates have been lowered by 150 basis points each. Exports from special economic zones (SEZs) rose 33 per cent during the year to end-March 2009. Exports from such tax-free manufacturing hubs totalled US$ 18.16 billion last year up from US$ 13.60 billion a year before. India Incs order book has more than doubled to an all-time high of US$ 15.32 billion in the second quarter of the current financial year, compared to the first quarter. On a year-on-year basis, the increase is 21 per cent. Advance tax collections for the second quarter of the current financial year (2009-10) have shown robust growth of 35 to 40 per cent across industries. The domestic mutual fund industry registered a moderate growth of 5 per cent in its assets under management (AUM) in August 2009 at US$ 15,702, due to good performance by debt funds. India exported a total of 230,000 cars, vans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks between January and July 2009, a growth of 18 per cent owing to its liberal investment policies and high quality manufacturing that stems from its growing prowess in research and development. Indias gems and jewellery exports regained momentum and aggregated to US$ 1.9 billion in July 2009 as compared to US$ 1.7 billion in June 2009. The total Merger and acquisition (MA) deals registered during the first seven months of this year stand at 158 with a value of US$ 5.91 billion, while PE deals stand at 114, totalling a value of US$ 4.89 billion, according to consulting firm, Grant Thornton Investments in the Indian stock market through participatory notes (PNs) crossed US$ 20.65 billion-mark in May 2009. Sustainable energy investment in India went up to US$ 3.7 billion in 2008, up 12 per cent since 2007, according a report titled Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009. The rural India growth story The Indian growth story is spreading to the rural and semi-urban areas as well. The next phase of growth is expected to come from rural markets with rural India accounting for almost half of the domestic retail market, valued over US$ 300 billion. Rural India is set to witness an economic boom, with per capita income having grown by 50 per cent over the last 10 years, mainly on account of rising commodity prices and improved productivity. Development of basic infrastructure, generation of employment guarantee schemes, better information services and access to funding are also bringing prosperity to rural households. Per Capita Income Per capita income of Indian individuals stood at US$ 773.54 in 2008-09, according to Central Statistical Organization data. The per capita income in India stood at US$ 687.03 in 2007-08 and has risen by over one-third from US$ 536.79 in 2005-06 to US$ 773.54 in 2008-09. Advantage India According to the World Fact Book, India is among the worlds youngest nations with a median age of 25 years as compared to 43 in Japan and 36 in USA. Of the BRIC-Brazil, Russia, India and China-countries, India is projected to stay the youngest with its working-age population estimated to rise to 70 % of the total demographic by 2030, the largest in the world. India will see 70 million new entrants to its workforce over the next 5 years. India has the second largest area of arable land in the world, making it one of the worlds largest food producers-over 200 million tonnes of foodgrains are produced annually. India is the worlds largest producer of milk (100 million tonnes per annum), sugarcane (315 million tonnes per annum) and tea (930 million kg per annum) and the second largest producer of rice, fruit and vegetables. With the largest number of listed companies 10,000 across 23 stock exchanges, India has the third largest investor base in the world. Indias healthy banking system with a network of 70,000 branches is among the largest in the world. According to a study by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), Indias consumer market will be the worlds fifth largest (from twelfth) in the world by 2025 and Indias middle class will swell by over ten times from its current size of 50 million to 583 million people by 2025. India, which recorded production of 22.14 million tonne of steel during April-August 2009, is likely to emerge as the worlds third largest steel producer in the current year. India continues to be the most preferred destination-among 50 top countries-for companies looking to offshore their information technology (IT) and back-office functions, according to global management consultancy, AT Kearney. The Indian stock markets have risen to be amongst the best performers globally across the emerging and developed markets in 2009 year-to-date, according to an analytical study by MSCI Barra indices. India has reclaimed its position as the most attractive destination for global retailers despite the downturn, according to the Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) brought out by US-based global management consulting firm, A T Kearney. Growth potential According to the Young report titled India 2012: Telecom growth continues, Indias telecom services industry revenues are projected to reach US$ 54 billion in 2012, up from US$ 31 billion in 2008. The Indian telecom industry registered the highest number of subscriber additions at 15.84 million in March 2009, setting a global record. A McKinsey report, The rise of Indian Consumer Market, estimates that the Indian consumer market is likely to grow four times by 2025, which is currently valued at US$ 511 billion. India ranks among the top 12 producers of manufacturing value added (MVA)-witnessing an increase of 12.3 % in its MVA output in 2005-2007 as against 6.9 % in 2000-2005-according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In textiles, the country is ranked 4th, while in electrical machinery apparatus it is ranked fifth. It holds 6th position in the basic metals category; seventh in chemicals and chemical products; 10th in leather, leather products, refined petroleum products nuclear fuel; twelfth in machinery and equipment motor vehicles. In a development slated to enhance Indias macroeconomic health as well as energy security, Reliance Industries has commenced natural gas production from its D-6 block in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin. India has a market value of US$ 270.98 billion in low-carbon and environmental goods services (LCEGS). With a 6 % share of the US$ 4.32 trillion global market, the country is tied with Japan at the third position. PE players are planning to raise funds for the infrastructure sector. Presently, around US$ 1.42 billion is being raised by India-dedicated infrastructure funds, according to data released by Preqin, a global firm that tracks PE and alternative assets. Infrastructure, including roads, power, highways, airports, ports and railways, has emerged as an asset class with long-term growth that can provide relatively stable returns. NASSCOM has estimated that the IT-BPO industry will witness an export growth of 4-7 % and domestic market growth of 15-18 % in 2009-10. Further, it has projected that around 40,000 students will be absorbed by IT companies this fiscal. With the availability of the 3G spectrum, about 275 million Indian subscribers will use 3G-enabled services, and the number of 3G-enabled handsets will reach close to 395 million by 2013-end. Exchange rate used: 1 USD = 48.21 INR (as on July) 1 USD = 47.81 INR (as on September) FIIS Foreign Institutional Investors is used to denote an investor; it is mostly of the form of an institution or entity which invests money in the financial markets of a country. The term FII is most commonly used in India to refer to companies that are established or incorporated outside India, and is investing in the financial markets of India. These investors must register with the Securities Exchange Board of India to take part in the market. Foreign investment refers to investments made by residents of a country in another countrys financial assets and production processes. After the opening up of the borders for capital movement, foreign investments in India have grown enormously. It affects the productivity factors of the receiver country and has the potential to create a ripple effect on the bop of the country. In developing countries like india, foreign capital helps in increasing the productivity of labor and to build up foreign exchange reserves to meet the current account deficit. It provides a channel through which these countries can have access to foreign capital. Foreign investments can be of two forms: foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment. FDI involves direct production activity and has a medium to long term investment plans. In contrast the FPI has a short term investment horizon. They mostly investment in the financial markets which consist of FIIs. They invest in domestic financial markets like money market, stock market, foreign exchange market etc. FIIs investments are volatile in nature, and they mostly invest in the emerging markets. They usually keep in mind the potential of a particular market to grow. FII has lead a significant improvement in India relating to the flow of foreign capital during the period of post economic reforms. The inflow of FII investments has helped the stock market to raise at a greater height according to financial analysts. Sensex touched a new height. It crossed 10000-mark in Jan 2006 which was 9323 in 2005. FII participation in the Indian stock market triggers its upward movement, but at the same time increased liquidity through FII investment inflow increases volatility. HISTORY OF FII India opened its stock market to foreign investors in September 1992, and in 1993, received portfolio investment from foreigners in the form of foreign institutional investment in equities. This has become one of the main channels of FII in India for foreigners. Initially, there were many terms and conditions which restricted many FIIs to invest in India. But in the course of time, in order to attract more investors, SEBI has simplified many terms such as: The ceiling for overall investments of FIIs was increased 24% of the paid up capital of Indian company. Allowed foreign individuals and hedge funds to directly register as FIIs. Investment in government securities was increased to US $ 5 Billion. Simplified registration norms. P-NOTES (Participatory Notes) are instruments used by foreign investors that are not registered with the Securities Exchange Board of India to invest in Indian stock markets. For example, Indian-based brokerages buy India-based securities and then issue Participatory Notes to foreign investors. Any dividends or capital gains collected from the underlying securities go back to the investors. That is why they are also called Offshore Derivative Instruments. Trading through Participatory Notes is easy because participatory notes are like contract notes transferable by endorsement and delivery. Secondly, some of the entities route their investment through Participatory Notes to take advantage of the tax laws of certain preferred countries. Thirdly, Participatory Notes are popular because they provide a high degree of anonymity, which enables large hedge funds to carry out their operations without disclosing their identity. The first question that we need to ask is the necessity of FIIs as an instrument for investment into India. This is not a common place of markets; if, for example, a non-resident of the US or of England chooses to invest in an American or an English or a German stock, he does not have to hold his investment indirectly through an FII, but can hold it directly in his own name. An FII in India is a superfluous addition created simply to suit the regulatory requirements of SEBI. FIIs serve no economic purpose but they exist in order to provide SEBI with a bureaucratic layer between a foreign investor and the regulator. It enables SEBI to pretend that it controls foreign investors when in fact SEBI has no control on the ultimate investor. It is a good example of obscuring the true character of foreign investment in India through a non-transparent and expensive set-up. The P-Note is an additional twist in this indirect investment as it enables those who wish to invest in the Indian market to do so without disclosing their identity. FIIs impact on the Indian economy: The Indian stock markets are both shallow and narrow and the movement of stock depends on limited number of stocks. As FIIs purchases and sells these stocks there is a high degree of volatility in the stock market. If any set of development encourages outflow of capital that will increase the vulnerability of the situation. The high degree of volatility can be attributed to the following reasons: The increase in investments by FIIs increases stock indices in turn increases the stock prices and encourages further investments. In this event, if any correction takes place the stock prices declines and there will be full out by the FIIs in large number as earning per share declines. The FIIs manipulate the situation of boom in such a manner that they wait till the index raises up to a certain height an exit at an appropriate time. This tendency increases the volatility further. So even though the portfolio investment by FIIs increases the flow of money in the economic system, it may create problems of inflation. FIIs Influence in Indian Stock Market Institutional Investor is any investor or investment fund that is from or registered in a country outside of the one in which it is currently investing. Institutional investors include hedge funds, insurance companies, pension funds and mutual funds. The growing Indian market had attracted the foreign investors, which are called Foreign Institutional Investors to Indian equity market, and in this paper, we are trying a simple attempt to explain the impact and extent of foreign institutional investors in Indian stock market. What does the name FII means? It is the abbreviation of Foreign Institutional Investors. The term is used most commonly in India to refer to outside companies investing in the financial markets of India. International institutional investors must register with the Securities Exchange Board of India to participate in the market. One of the major market regulations pertaining to FIIs involves placing limits on FII ownership in Indian companies. They actually evaluate the shares and deposits in a portfolio. The major source (almost 50%) of money the FIIs invest is from the issue of Participatory Notes (P-Notes) or what are sometimes called Offshore Derivatives. There are over 1484 FIIs and 38 foreign brokers registered to Securities Exchange Board of India. We are also examining whether market movement can be explained by these investors. We often hear that whenever there is a rise in market, it is explained that it is due to foreign investors money and a decline in market is termed as withdrawal of money from FIIs. After 1991, due to our liberalization process, there was large flow of foreign funds from abroad. Investments by FII are Rs. 2,55,464.40 Crores as compared to Rs. 2,83,468.40 Crores by the end of 31 December 2007. That implies that they had withdrawn almost 9% of money they had deposited till December 2007. The amount was much in the months of 2008 as compared to corresponding months of 2007, and that is a reason for the volatility of the stock market. In 2008, the net buying is only Rs. 5,603 Crores compared to Rs. 36,869 Crores in 2007. A more investments by FIIs indicate that they are confident in Indian market. Usually, the mode of operations of FIIs was taking loans from countries where interest is low (like Japan) and invests in booming markets like India. But the sub-prime crisis and other economic conditions had caused a liquidity crunch for these institutions. So they are forced to withdraw money from Indian market so as to repay loans they had taken. These withdrawals had caused panic in market, and even domestic investors are making them sell their shares. But one aspect we should agree on is that the FIIs increased role had changed the face of Indian stock market. It had brought both quantitative and qualitative change. It had also increased the market depth and breadth. Emphasize is on fundamentals had caused efficient pricing of shares. Since there is no condition on FIIs that they should disclose in which company they are investing, those figures are not available. Many qualitative tests like regression tests had proved that there is direct relation between market movements and fund flows of FIIs. In this, we will analyze the investments in different months and years, and tries to find the impact of FIIs in stock market. Investments of FIIs on Indian Stock Market The current investments of FIIs is Rs. 2,55,464.40 Crores. This is almost 9% of the total market capitalization. If we explain the things in simple terms, market pundits often attribute the rally of stock market and fall of stock market to the flow of funds by FIIs. We often hear the terms FIIs Fuel the Market Run. If we analyze the impacts, then the major impacts are: They increased depth and breadth of the market. They played major role in expanding securities business. Their policy on focusing on fundamentals of the shares had caused efficient pricing of shares. These impacts made the Indian stock market more attractive to FIIs and also domestic investors, which involve the other major player Mutual Funds. The impact of FIIs is so high that whenever FIIs tend to withdraw the money from market, the domestic investors become fearful and they also withdraw from market. Just to show the impact, we analyze below the 10 biggest falls of stock market: Day (Point loss in India) Gross Purchase (Rs. Crores) Gross Sales (Rs. Crores) Net Investments (Rs. Crores) 21/01/2008 (1408) 3062.00 1060.30 2001.80 22/01/2008 (875) 2813.30 1618.20 1195.10 18/01/2008 (687) 1077.20 1348.40 -271.20 17/12/2007 (826) 670.00 869.00 -199.00 21/11/2007 (678) 640.70 791.80 -151.10 18/10/2007 (717) 1107.00 1372.50 -265.50 16/08/2007 (643) 989.50 750.30 239.20 02/08/2007 (617) 534.50 542.00 -7.50 01/08/2007 (615) 809.40 956.90 -147.50 18/05/2006 (856) 761.80 527.40 234.40 Major Intra Day Collapses in BSE Sensex From this table, we can see that the major falls are accompanied by the withdrawal of investments by FIIs. Take the case on January 18, 2008, the Sensex lost almost 687 points. Here, the net sales by FIIs were Rs. 1348.40 Crores. This is a major contributor to the fall on that day. But contrary to that day, take the case on January 21, 2008, the Sensex lost 1408 points and the gross sales was Rs. 1060.30 Crores and the purchases were Rs. 3062.00 Crores. So this can be concluded that after the fall of market, FIIs had invested again into the market. From this, we can see the effect of FIIs. Net Investments of FII from 2006-09 Year Net Investment 2006 36539.7 2007 71486.5 2008 -29169 2009 15281.8 Now we analyze the net investments graph from 2006 to 2008. From this, we can see that there was small decrease in investments in the year 2006. But there was a steep increase in the year 2007-08. This was the best period in Indian stock market where stock prices were increased and the market was in good mood. When we take the investments in 2008, the net investments is negative.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Marla is a 42-year-old Hispanic female who comes to the mental health clinic complaining of having trouble sleeping, feeling Ã¢â¬Å"jumpy all of the time,Ã¢â¬ and experiencing an inability to concentrate. These symptoms cause problems for her at work, where she is an accountant. As a psychiatrist I would need to diagnose Marla with the proper disorder, explain information about the diagnosis, and discuss possible treatments with her. It would be near impossible to make an accurate diagnosis without more information. First, I will clinically assess Marla by asking her a few questions without her realizing right away that I am trying to diagnose her from the second she enters my office. I will ease into the conversation to gain more insight before she notices what I am doing. I would like to provide a brief interview of how I would expect it to go, given the disorder that I have diagnosed. Hello, Marla. I am Joy Wardrip. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a pleasure to meet you. Will you tell me a little bit about yourself? Marla would likely introduce herself, tell me that she is an accountant. She would go on to tell me how she has been feeling anxious for a bit and how it really distracts her from her work. She would tell me how she has trouble concentrating and that too is affecting her work. She would likely be a bit emotional, perhaps teary-eyed as she expresses her frustration with the occurrence of these recent symptoms and how she would like to symptoms to be explained and to go away. She may even express how she wants to feel Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ again. I understand your frustration and it is ok to feel frustrated. How long ago did you notice a change in your behavior? Marla would let me know that she had been feeling this way for the past six to eight months. She would also tell me that she canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember anything that has happened in her life to explain the anxieties that she was feeling. She would tell me how she would like for things to go back to the way that they used to be. How is your relationship with your parents? Marla would describe a great upbringing. She would explain how she is very close to both of her parents. She would go on to describe her childhood, which was abuse and torment free. She would speak of many good memories with her parents and how she is an only child. She would go on to tell me that she was quite spoiled and had no bad memories of being a young girl. Is there any mental illness that runs in your family? Also, have you ever been diagnosed with any disorders or are you on any type of medication? Marla would tell me that no psychological disorders were apparent in her family and that she is not currently taking any medication. She would tell me that she had only just recently went to her family doctor to discuss her symptoms and that the doctor recommended that she speak with someone to find the root of her troubles and to explore the possibility of her having a disorder. She would tell me that is why she came to see me. What was life like before you felt the symptoms that you have described to me? Marla would respond with how she was always very happy, always smiling. She would tell me how she lived a worry-free life and was very social. She would discuss how she had many friends and how she enjoyed her work. She would describe herself prior to the symptoms as someone who was very optimistic and upbeat. She would then go on to say that she only just realized that it had been quite a while since she had gone out and dined with any of her friends. Have you suffered any type of trauma? This can include anything from your past that caused you great pain or suffering mentally or physically. This could be an accident, death of someone close to you or abuse. Marla would bring up her childhood again and remind me that it was abuse free. She would also let me know that she had never been in a car accident, aside from a fender bender which really caused no damage to herself or her vehicle for that matter. She would tell me that she had been a victim of an earthquake years ago but that it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to affect her anymore. She said that she was a bit shaken after the earthquake but that she had moved passed it almost effortlessly and that she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t even really thought about the incident in some time. I would like to go back to something that you mentioned earlier. You said that you hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t gone out in a while, are their certain situations that you try and avoid because of your anxiety? Marla would explain that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like going to work. That she was missing several days because she felt uncomfortable in her office. She would explain that the more that she called in the less motivated she got to go and that it was really causing a problem for her at the workplace. She would tell me that she was afraid if something didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give, she would be fired. She would tell me how she wanted to leave while working because she felt claustrophobic, as though she needed to get some air or go clear her head. You mentioned that you have been having trouble sleeping here lately. Can you tell me a little more about that? Do you know of anything that may have lead to the trouble sleeping? Marla would tell me that she had been having trouble sleeping throughout the night. She would let me know that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t struggle to get to sleep; she just had trouble staying asleep. She would let me know that it was really irritating her and that it was affecting her at work. She would tell me that she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t arriving late to work but that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that she had gotten enough rest when she got to work and that she felt very tired during the work day. Do you often have dreams that recur often or do you have nightmares often? Also, how often do you wake and remember your dreams and what do you remember about them? Marla would likely tell me that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dream often, nor did she have nightmares. She might say that perhaps she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the dreams once she has awakened. However, Marla would share with me that she often felt very shaken and jumpy after having waken up. Had this taken place, I may suggest that she keep a journal by her bed so that she can record anything that she remembers about her dreams and how she is feeling upon waking up. Have you ever experienced flashbacks? This is when something seems very real and the images are very clear. Perhaps you have experienced feelings similar to the feeling that you felt during the earthquake that we discussed earlier? Marla would tell me that she really struggled with flashbacks following the earthquake, but that she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had any experiences with them from some time. She would tell me that it had been a few years since she had experienced them. Following the interview, I would likely diagnose Marla with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). I would explain to her that it is a incapacitating anxiety disorder that is experienced by people who suffer traumatic events. I will explain that these events can be related to warfare, rape, abuse, car accidents, or in her case, an earthquake. I would explain that the traumatic event can produce many characteristic symptoms which she has described to me, such as flashbacks, inability to concentrate, insomnia, and changes in emotions. Finally, I would explain the origin of the disorder by using the cognitive model of psychology. According to this model, one must understand human thought to understand its behavior. When people show abnormal behaviors many theorists look at cognitive problems. These problems can include illogical thinking processes and maladaptive assumptions. I would then try and help her to realize what she is doing and how she is responding to the trauma of the earthquake so that she can later focus on changing her faulty ideas and thinking processes for a form of treatment. This treatment would be achieved through a series of therapies in which I teach her to calm herself and control her emotions and behaviors (Comer, 2005).