Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Speluncean Explorers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Speluncean Explorers - Essay Example In the process, ten people from the rescue team lost their lives and the entire operation appeared grim. The trapped explorers faced imminent death from starvation. They contacted the rescue camp and explained their condition. The clinician present at the camp informed them that they would die within ten days while the head of the search team informed that they would require at least the same number of days to release them. In order to stay alive, the five decided to prey on one of their own, Roger Whetmore. From the evidence presented, Whetmore was the brainchild behind the idea and provided effective ways of determining the one to eat given their grim situation. The five cast a dice thereby determining that they should kill and eat Whetmore. After the rescue team had succeeded and after the five men had regained their health, the commonwealth indicted them for the murder of Roger Whetmore. In the case, both the trial judge and the jury found the four guilty of killing Whetmore. In their ruling, the jury and the judge followed an integral statue in the society that stated, "Whoever shall willfully take the life of another shall be punished by death†. However, the four appealed the ruling the extra ordinary circumstances to the Supreme Court of Newgarth where I am to review their evidence and provide a new ruling. Among the basic issues that the case present is the need to determine the guilt or innocence of the four men, they killed their colleague, and they have admitted doing so in a previous court. The laws of the land are clear on how to deal with people who kill others. However, the four base their argument on the uniqueness of their case. This implies that besides determining whether the two are guilty or innocent, my court will determine the applicability of the since the case tries the basic dictates of the law in the society. Given the facts presented before the court, I reverse the ruling of the high court that

Monday, October 28, 2019

Symbolism of the Novel Mice of Men Essay Example for Free

Symbolism of the Novel Mice of Men Essay In this short Novel Of Mice and Men, author John Steinbeck uses symbolism to demonstrate the hardships that people had to deal with during the Depression. Rabbits represent Lennie’s dreams and the impossibility of it being fulfilled. Rabbits are a fraught symbol: we know Lennie is excited about them because they’ll be furry and lovely to pet, but we also know that Lennie tends to hurt whatever he pets. Rabbits are simply Lennie’s hopes and dreams and the rabbits are revealing his every thought. When George first tells Lennie about their dream farm, it is Lennie’s trigger to tell him about the rabbits. When George thinks about the farm he thinks of freedom from working; not worrying about surviving and happiness because they wouldn’t have to worry about them starving because they would have all the things to plant and raise livestock. For Lennie, it is only about the soft things. Through evidence, the audience knows these rabbits will likely be added to Lennie’s telltale trail of small and dead animals, symbolizing Lennie’s inability to see patterns in his life and to recognize that failure is imminent. This doesn’t bode well for him and he knows it. Mice represent the false hope of a safe space for Lennie or as comfort. When Lennie was comfort he would pet something he thought that was soft, and he links them to his Aunt Carla. Mice also make it very clear that he suffers from hurting something he loves so dearly. In the title it gives a huge hint that this book has to do with mice and the first one we encounter is a dead one. And that gives us a huge indicator that Lennie doesn’t really care or worry about death, all he cares about is comfort. Remember at the ending he would be more comfortable dead by his own friend’s gentle hand than with a violet end form Curley. Also know that symbolism are not just about animals in this novel, the settings are a huge factor in symbolism too. Like the pool by the river is the place where this story began and where it also ended too. It is a safe place free from people and where Lennie and George can be their regular selves without getting judged. The dream farm is symbolic of Lennie and George’s friendship. It is the only thing that keeps them together and keeps them working for other people so that they would be free, even if times were hard they would push through it. It is, ultimately, their version of heaven, so that when Lennie kills a human being, their chances of going to heaven or their dream house is forever ruin. Steinbeck is a great writer beacues he incorporates symbolism in his books. He makes things symbolize beyond their literal meaning. Rabbits are represented as dreams, mice are the false hope that Lennie clings to and these are relatable to anyone now. These hardships during the Deprression can be carried over to now because of Steinbeck’s use of symbolism.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Crucible: Insight Of Hale, Elizabeth And John :: Essay on The Crucible

The Crucible, a container that resists hear or the hollow at the bottom of an ore furnace. However its connotations include melting pot, in the symbolic sense, and the bearing of a cross. Elizabeth, John Proctor’s wife; a cold, childless woman who is an upright character who cannot forgive her husband’s adultery until just before he died: she is accused of being a witch. Reverend Hale, a self-proclaimed expert on witchcraft; at the play’s end tries to save the accused. John Proctor, a good man with human failures and a hidden secret, a affair with Abigail, he is often the voice of reason in the play; accused of witchcraft.â€Å"I do not judge you. The magistrate that sits in your heart judges you.† This is where Elizabeth suspects that John has committed adultery, but knows how good of man he is and tries to look over it. â€Å"Adultery, John.† This is where John tells her and she makes it sound like it is news to her even though she has known for awhile. She is trying to have John have a â€Å"good† name and not be a name that everyone discards. â€Å"No, sir.† Here she is protecting his name but she doesn’t know that John has just came out and said that he committed lechery. She thought that she was saving him but she was actually making it worse for him.â€Å"I mean to crush him utterly if he has shown his face.† Here he is talking about if he ever encountered the Devil that he would literally kick his ass. This shows how he is a hippercrite against being a Puritan. Even though he is a religious man he still has the human character of having an evil side to himself.â€Å"But I will cut off my hand before I ever reach for you again.† John is talking to Abigail and how he is finished with seeing her and that he doesn’t want any part of her. John goes through from being amoral to immoral and then to moral, then back to amoral at the end. â€Å"It’s winter in here yet.† Elizabeth and John were talking about how he was working all day seeding even though he was at Salem to see what the fuss was all about. Here he shows his character toward Elizabeth by lying to her and she can’t trust him. â€Å"Let Rebecca go like a saint, for me it is a fraud.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Ford Motor’s Financial Health Progress Report Essay

In the coming week, Learning Team B will discuss the financial health of Ford Motor Co. The discussion will include an analysis of the current financial condition after calculating profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, activity ratios, and solvency ratios. We will answer questions about where the company began, how the company manages their investments, and where the company is now financially. We will also look at the DuPont Method as it relates to Ford Motor Co. and their financial troubles. Specific Task that have been Accomplished How Much the Company has borrowed? It has been discovered that Ford Motor Co. borrowed 23.5 billion dollars in 2006 from the government in an effort to reduce debt. Ford Motor Company’s debt liabilities, long term-debts, current notes is the total of what the company has borrowed. Define the Business Need Because of the money borrowed, Ford is in better shape than General Motors and Chrysler. The financial ratios, profitability, liquidity, activity, solvency, have already been calculated. The business need will include high-level deliverables to resolve problems. The business needs of the Ford Motor Company is to improve in the area of return on equity and return on capital by addressing customer service needs and customer satisfaction as a means of retention of reputation and quality assurance. How liquid is the Company The liquidation of Ford Motor Company can easily be defined as the ability in which as asset can be converted into cash, to meet short-term financial obligations. In order for Ford to meet this obligation, the company has to have more liquid. The company can calculate their liquids by using financial rations such as cash ratio, quick ratio, and current ratio. How Efficiently the Organization is using its Assets This will be determined by using the Debt Ratios of the company’s liabilities and assets. Additionally, the straight line depreciation method will be used to determine if assets are profitable or assuming greater debt to the company. Strength and weakness The strength and weakness of an organization is crucial. According to (Titman, Keown, & Martin, p. 79), â€Å"Financial ratios provide a second method for standardizing the financial information in the income statement and balance sheet. Ratios answer questions about the firm’s financial health or strength and weaknesses.† The relevant questions are how liquid is the firm, will it be able to pay on time, did the firm finance the purchase of assets, is the management efficient in utilizing assets to generate sales, is ROI adequate based on the organization financial goals and objectives, and are shareholders getting value for their investment. The ratio mechanism is liquidity, capital structure, and asset management efficiency, profitability, and market value ratios assessments. â€Å"The acid test is the current ratio to assess firm liquidity; we assume that the firm’s accounts receivable will be collected and turned into cash on a timely basis and that its inventories can be sold without an extended delay. But the truth is that a company’s inventory might not be very liquid at all, (Titman, Keown, & Martin, p. 80).† Debt & Equity Financing According to (, 2014), â€Å"Debt financing requires borrowing money, usually as a loan from a bank, financial institution or commercial finance companies, to fund investment of the organization.† Organizations must keep in mind that debt builds credit that s supports lower insurance rates and future borrowing. Additionally, an organization can gain a tax deductible interest rate to lessen the impact of repayment. Equity financing requires investment partners that provide funding for a share of ownership. Each type of financing has advantages and disadvantages of appeal, organizations use both to finance investment ventures. Problems, Solutions, and Potential Issues The high-level of deliverables occurs according to the Britannica (2014)  website â€Å"because of financial struggles at the beginning of the 21st century, the company sold off Aston Martin in 2007 and both Jaguar and Land Rover in 2008.† In addition to selling â€Å"Ford manufactures passenger cars, trucks, and tractors as well as parts and accessories.† Next Steps The team should further expound on the business need of Ford Motor Co. The Market Value Added (EVA) and Economic Value Added (EVA) have been research, but need to be further researched to explain difference it makes for Ford Motor Co. All ratios and ROE need to be calculated and explained: ELIZABETH Profitability Ratio Liquidity Ratio Activity Ratio Solvency Ratio ROE DuPont Method Finally, the team needs to determine how profitable the organization is at the end of the research. Conclusion In concluding, Learning Team B discusses the financial health of Ford Motor Company within a progress report. The report includes an analysis of the current financial condition after calculating profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, activity ratios, and solvency ratios. The report answer questions about where the company began, how the company manages their investments, and where the company is now financially. The report finally looks into the DuPont Method as it relates to Ford Motor Co. and their financial troubles.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Junior High School Essay

The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior high school, and two years of Senior high school) to provide sufficient time for tmastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare garduaes for the tertiary education, middle-levels skills development, employment, and entreprenuership. The K+12 educational program is perceived by the Aquino administration as the â€Å"long term solution to poverty. † This program aims to give every student a quality education that will make them globally competitive. This will be done by decongesting the curricilum and using quality materials for learning such as textbooks. Aside from this, high quality teacher will be given priority. High standards will also be set in Mathematics, English and Science in all levels. Thus eliminating the perception the highschool education is preparatory for college. ISSUES AND CONCERNS One of the major campaign platform of Pres. Aquino is the K to 12 educational program and it is also one of the most controversial initiatives. On May 15, President Aquino signed into law the program mandating Filipino pupils to attend kindergarten, six years of elementary school education, four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school. The signing officially ended the country’s 10-year basic education cycle, which now exists only in Angola and Djibouti. K to 12 hopes to decongest the curriculum, by spreading lessons over 12 years, instead of cramming them into 10. K to 12 hopes to do away with college remedial classes, by improving the quality of high-school instruction. K to 12 hopes to protect the rights of Filipino children who, at 18, are legally and emotionally still kids, unprepared for work or university.. Some problems that abound with K to 12: Lack of family, school, government resources; the herculean task of implementation; the need to address more urgent concerns such as early and massive dropouts. Many schools are currently not ready for Grades 11 and 12. Aside from lack of classrooms, their teachers are not trained to handle higher-level subjects, like calculus for students who want to major in the sciences in university. K to 12 would be far more difficult to implement in already overcrowded and poorly equipped public schools, where many teachers are insufficiently trained, classes are often held in multiple shifts and most students struggle to make ends meet. The biggest problem of K to 12 has always been, and will always be, the cost. Even if public education is free, families have to spend for transportation and supplies. An additional two years is a burden for most Filipino families, who want their children to finish school quickly so they can work.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Independent Work No1 essays

Independent Work No1 essays The one website that I am adamant about visiting regularly is the video game publication Next Generation's site, located at It is, what I believe, to be the most comprehensive website devoted to video games, both PC and console, their development, and up to the minute news concerning release dates, company mergers/buyouts, and groundbreaking technology. Next Generation, the magazine and the website, are both affiliates of Imagine Media. Next Generation's website is updated twice daily, six days a week (Monday through Friday) excluding holidays. The first update of the day is at 10:00 a.m. with the second update occurring at 7:00 p.m. pacific. The home page always displays the cover to the most current issue of Next Generation, a few sponsors, a link to the online site, and in today's case, a bit of tech support for their most current giveaway demo CD-ROMs. If an option is not chosen on the page within ten seconds, it will automatically load today's most current news updates. Once connected to the current day's news, there is an option available to allow to review the news of the past week, and a few thumbnailed articles that may be of particular interest to visitors of the site. The most significant news stories are accompanied by a thumbnail, located near the top of the page. Some contain links to downloadable images and movies of games and/or conferences. To the upper left of the page is a rather extensive index. The available options in the index are as follows: Previews will provide the viewer with links to Next Generation's coverage of upcoming works in progress. This area will also allow players to view archived previews. Reviews will allow the viewer access to NGO's (Next Generation Online) latest and archived reviews of released games for any system. Stockwatch provides the viewer with up to date status on game related stock. This does n ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Bacteria Outline essays

Bacteria Outline essays - Oldest, structurally simplest, most abundant forms of life - Only organism with prokaryotic cellular organization - The only members of the kingdom Monera (4800 different kinds) - Characteristics change depending on growth conditions - Maintenance of life depends on them - play vital role of productivity and as decomposers - Capable of fixing atmospheric N for use by other organisms - Used in production and fermentation of various food and as antibiotics and is being tested for - All bacteria fundamentally single celled - Sometimes cells adhere within a matrix to form filaments - Activities of bacterial colonies less integrated and coordinated than in multicellular eukaryotes Cell Size 10x size of bacteria 1 micrometer (Ã §m) diameter Chromosomes Membrane bound nucleus w/ chromosomes w/ nucleic acid Cell Division and Genetic Remcombination Mitosis involving microtubules Sexual reproduction - meiosis/syngamy Binary fusion Lack of sexual reproduction - no equal participation Internal Compartementalization Respirational enzymes packed into mitochondria Corresponding enzymes bound to cell membranes Cytoplasm - no internal compartments/organelles (except ribosomes) Flagella Complex 9+2 structure of microtubules (whip-like motion) Simple w/ a single fiber protein flagellin Autotrophic Diversity Enzymes for photosyn. Packed in membrane-bound organelles (plastids) Only 1 type of photo. - release of O2 Enzymes bound to cell membrane Several patterns of aerobic/anaerobic photo. w/ formation of S, O, sulfate Chemosynthesis - process where certain bacteria obtain energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds and obtain C from CO2 - Lypopolysaccharide - polysaccharide chain with lipids attached - Molecules of it deposited over layer of gram positive - forming outer membrane - Makes gram negative bacteri...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

A Profile of Paul Williams, Architect to the Stars

A Profile of Paul Williams, Architect to the Stars During an age when racial prejudice ran strong, Paul Revere Williams (born February 18, 1894 in Los Angeles) overcame barriers and became a favored architect in Southern California. In 1923, he was the first Black architect to become a member of the national professional organization, the American Institute of Architects (AIA), and he rose to become a Fellow in 1957 (FAIA). In 2017, Williams posthumously received the Institutes highest honor, the AIA Gold Medal. Paul Williams was orphaned when he was four - his brother and parents died of tuberculosis - but his artistic talents were supported and encouraged by his new foster family. His non-Black public school teachers, however, gave little encouragement to Williams, citing the perceived difficulties of a Negro pursuing an architecture career within a largely white community. Nevertheless, he enrolled in the local engineering school and graduated in 1919 from the University of Southern California. He went on to New York City to become one of the first Black students to attend the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, an architectural experience modeled after the curriculum of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Williams was ambitious and self-assured after such rigorous study and especially after winning an important architecture competition when he was only 25. He opened his own practice back in LA when he was 28. As a Black American, Paul Williams faced many social and economic barriers. Williams clients were mostly white. In the moment that they met me and discovered they were dealing with a Negro, I could see many of them freeze, he wrote in American Magazine. My success during those first few years was founded largely upon my willingness - anxiety would be a better word - to accept commissions which were rejected as too small by other, more favored, architects. Much of what we know about Williams process is from this 1937 essay, I Am a Negro. He took to heart what he had been told about clients - that Black people couldnt afford architects and white people wouldnt hire a Black architect. So, he developed tricks to be less intrusive, almost subservient to potential white clients - most famously, he elegantly sketched upside-down to showcase his ideas to white clients while maintaining a physical distance. Perhaps it is this understanding of space that made this architect so successful. He used both physical and psychological tactics - he would consciously stand in a non-threatening posture with both hands behind his back while explaining that he normally doesnt take on projects in the lower price ranges, but hed be glad to offer some ideas. Williams most famously has said If I allow the fact that I am a Negro to checkmate my will to do, now, I will inevitably form the habit of being defeated. Being Black in a segregated industry led Paul Williams to develop salesmanship and become politically active. He joined the Los Angeles Planning Commission and he became the first Black member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). In 1957, he was the first Black architect elected to the prestigious AIA College of Fellows (FAIA). Paul Williams collaborated with other architects on many of his larger, public projects, most famously for his role in designing the Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Some of Williams projects were with architect A. Quincy Jones, who worked with Williams from 1939 to 1940. Although the iconic, futuristic LAX structure is high profile architecture, Williams designed thousands of private homes in Southern California - many of the most beautiful houses in Hollywood are sold an resold to the ongoing star-making machine surrounding Hollywood. Williams designed homes for Lucille Ball, Bert Lahr, and Frank Sinatra, and he became close friends with Danny Thomas, for whom he did pro bono work for St. Jude Childrens Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. While there is no one distinctive look to his buildings, Paul Williams became known for designs that were stylized and elegant. The architect borrowed ideas from the past without using excessive ornamentation. He could make a Tudor Revival mansion look like a manor house on the outside and a cozy bungalow on the inside. Paul Revere Williams retired in 1973 and died in the city of his birth on January 23, 1980 in Los Angeles, California. Although few documents from his practice have survived, architectural scholars have compiled extensive records of Paul Williams life and works, including contracts, letters from clients, plans, and materials related to specific projects. Photographs, bibliographies, and other resources are posted online by the Paul R. Williams Project, coordinated by AIA Memphis, the University of Memphis, and other organizations. In the 1940s, Williams published two small books of plans that have remained in print. Also, author Karen E. Hudson, the granddaughter of the architect, has been documenting Williams life and work. The Small Home of Tomorrow by Paul R. WilliamsNew Homes for Today by Paul R. WilliamsPaul R. Williams Architect: a legacy of style by Karen Hudson, Rizzoli, 2000The Will and the Way: Paul R. Williams, Architect by Karen Hudson, Rizzoli, 1994 (for ages 8-12)Paul R. Williams: Classic Hollywood Style by Karen Hudson, Rizzoli, 2012 Sources Early African-American Members of the AIA (PDF); 2017 AIA Gold Medal,; Architect of Hope, St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital; Williams the Conqueror by Shashank Bengali, University of Southern California Public Relations, 2/01/04

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Difference between Data and Information as It Applies to Freeway Ford Essay - 4

Difference between Data and Information as It Applies to Freeway Ford - Essay Example The success of a managerial decision depends on the correct interpretation of data collected. Data has no value at all if it is not transformed to meaningful information. In this case Freeway Ford knows the purchase date and owner of every car it sells. In other words Freeway Ford has the data about the exact date and the actual purchaser of every car it sells. But they never tried to convert these data in to useful information. Normally people will go for new cars within a period of 3 to 4 years. Freeway Ford could have easily prepared a database with respect to the cars they sold based on the date. From this database they can contact their customers regularly at least once in 3 months or 6 months period to know about the functioning of their car and also about their future purchasing plans. Service is one of the core elements of every purchasing decision. Regular follow ups always attract customers and they will consider Freeway Ford once again when they think about purchasing a ne w car or exchanging their used car, if they receive proper service from Freeway Ford. A used car buyer will always be interested in knowing the previous history of the car for known problems and also any accidents it suffered previously. Freeway Ford has all these data, but they fail to convert them into information. Each vehicle has an identification number (VIN) and the insurance companies sending the repair and claim details every month and Freeway Ford could have easily created a database for each car based on the repair and claim details which will be useful to the customers. Freeway Ford can create a website which explains everything to the customers with respect to their used car selling activities. Each vehicle details must be provided in the website so that a buyer can access all the relevant information regarding the vehicle he was interested in, even if he is not at the Freeway Ford location using internet technologies. Even a laptop is enough for Freeway Ford to convince the purchasers regarding the previous history of their cars.  

Assignment 5-2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Assignment 5-2 - Essay Example Mistakes are relatively low on cost and therefore, less serious. Creative or lateral thinking is an alternative perspective on the situation; and thus the problem and solution states can be interpreted differently from how most people see it. This leads to an alternate style of responding to the problem. A novel solution can often seem more interesting, and people are likely to become involved in the process with more enthusiasm; thereby leading to a greater chance for success. Which style of information processing should be used in a given situation or is more likely to succeed should be chosen carefully by the person seeking to solve a problem they face in the workplace. In the present scenario, vertical processing and problem solving techniques were used to resolve a reoccurring problem in the office. It was noted that attendance of employees dropped drastically when there was a particular type of sporting event involving major regions or the country. During the previous sport sea son, there was a distinct drop in the productivity of the set-up. When another season was due; this history became a major concern for the manager. It was decided that a few key employees should be involved in finding a solution to the problem of reduced productivity. Upon discussion, it was found that the younger employees are more likely to want to take a day of to watch sports. After this conversation, it was decided that certain key playing days should be announced half – day working on the promise that other day’s would not be affected. Accordingly, a notice was circulated amongst the staff so that they feel motivated enough to come for the rest of the days without taking an unannounced (impromptu) holiday. On understanding the process of using lateral thinking it was believed that there could be other alternatives to the solution to this problem. First of all the assumptions made when evaluating the problem were tested. The manager found that the assumption that all productivity dropped on these target days was untrue. Only certain members of the staff were implicated in this situation. The other assumption that distraction was due to the game was also challenged, since the rest of the staff was not interested in abstaining from coming to work, or working at the same level a s any other day. If a reasonable number of staff were not planning to watch sports, they could easily continue work. But it is rather unfair to give free time only to a few employees because they want to watch a sport. Thus, a more right question needs to be asked by the manager as to what options are there so that it is a win – win situation for all. A new and alternate approach to the situation is to tune the cafeteria television to the Sports channel, and allow the employees watch the game for its said time-period. This option, though unconventional, at least keeps the employees at work, and only those who wish to see them do view the sports. Also, in the even t that another employee needs them to be around when getting a task done; this work will not stagnate due to the unavailability of the employee in question. Although any screen which can be connected to the office can be used to relay the match to the employees; it makes logical sense to select the one in the cafeteria, as the noise and cheering will not trouble other employees who may not be interested in the game. The vertical process comes most naturally to most employees, since

Friday, October 18, 2019

Choose any topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Choose any topic - Essay Example However, every country that practices democracy as its system of governance has its way of interpreting it which might not appear always rational in other societies based on their actions, culture and beliefs. Unlike before, nowadays people’s opinions are forwarded to the government by elected representatives elected by that society as the population is much higher for every person to directly address the government. This has increased the much needed transparency and reason which must accompany the decision of a representative, for one would appear a fool to present an idea before thinking about its end results even though being the choice of majority (President Obama). The majority are not always right for a decision made by many uninformed people does not always auger well for them and the society they live in, hence the leadership even though democracy must put a reason in their governing to yield better results for all. Successful democracy must not be ultimate system whe re the majority of the people is entitled to make all the opinions regardless of the minority groups which in many circumstances might end up being mobbed rule. A good example of worst mob rule confused with democracy is the Nazis Brown Shirts from Germany. A mature democracy must observe ethics, reason and morals which are formulated by the majority citizens (President Obama). The ideas of democracy that do not observe reasons are tantamount to oppression or hypocrisy of the great order as the rulers who do not engage in reasonable ideas yet they purport to practice democracy manipulate the population to consent to their selfish deed while critics are suppressed. Just as President Obama comments in his speech delivered at Cairo University on June 2009 states that, ‘elections alone do not make true democracy’ (President Obama), democratically elected leadership must adhere to reason in its execution of its assigned duties if truly it follows a democratic system of gover nance. It is said that absolute power corrupt absolutely and if a government however determined to be free to its people remain unchecked by other organs within its rank, it will slowly transform into a tyrannical regime. The ideals that tie together democracy and reason in a democratic society are the ingredients approved and means well for the people being governed. These rational democratic ingredients that a leader must maintain are placing the interest of the people and legitimizing political working process beyond party politics, respecting the right of minority groups, maintaining power through consent instead of coercion and allowing compromise and tolerance. The ideas of democracy and reason are also tied together because freedom must be tolerated without being biased toward a leader believes. For example, it would be a violation of democracy to allow a certain religion to be practiced in your area as a leader while you bar others. Lack of religious tolerance would lender a leader dictatorial as he/she would be violating the right of minority groups toward their rights of worship of which would lead to animosity and conflict in the barred groups (President Obama). Reason must be applied to all laws where all people all catered for equally without

Open System Theory in Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Open System Theory in Nursing - Essay Example Various associations exist between the environment and the systems outlined. After the patient acquires a MRSA infection, various departments have to make some amendments in the way they operate. Isolation of the patient profoundly affects the admissions, dietary, billing, and utilization review departments involved in the management of the patient. These departments have to alter the patients' records and management so as to comply with the new change of the environment i.e. MRSA infection (Johnson & Webber, 2010). In addition, there is the improvement in the overall services offered to the patient in terms of the hiring of a consultant and acquisition of equipment. Moreover, it is mandatory for the patient’s visitors and health care providers to wear protective clothing in the presence of the patient. From the case study, an increase in the severity of the environmental factors leads to a bolder response by the system and the subsystems. Strict measures are thus applied if t he condition of a patient deteriorates. From the case study, Mr. Michaels, Mrs. Courts, and other health service providers are justifiable in the way that they react to the situation of the MRSA patient. Their reasoning is aimed at restricting the transmission of the MRSA and improving the patient’s quality of life while remaining accountable. This is observed through measures of quarantine and the use of protective gear and sterilization in the presence of the patient to both visitors and health care providers.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Culture Influence of the Food Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Culture Influence of the Food - Assignment Example The ingredients used are leftovers of a sheep after it has been slaughtered and meat extracted. Some people would have to be drunk or drugged in order to take haggis while it remains a cultural delicacy in Scotland. Different religious groups are known to use food as an expression of their faith. Fasting is believed to improve spiritual disciple among the Christians. Muslims are also known for not eating pigs. They consider pigs to be cursed and unholy. Hindus do not eat beef. They believe that the cow is holy(Kao and Elizabeth 87). The young generation has taken fasting to whole new level. Girls are known to fast so as to maintain their perfect physique. This is part of the food culture in today’s world and cannot be ignored. Chinese are known to use chopsticks to eat their food. In some countries around the world, the main meal is taken during the day. That is at noon. However, in America the main meal of the day is taken in the evening shortly before 7 P.M. The evening meal is referred to as dinner. In Spain, the evening meal (supper) is taken around 10 P.M. Some cultures prefer their food to be spicy. E.g. the Chinese. Some will enjoy their food more if it is either bitter, sour or sweet. Some cultures will also like their food to be boiled or fried. While some cultures like eat raw food. Some cultures like the French like eating in groups and holding festivals while some cultures leg Denmark people are allowed to eat alone and eating is not considered a social activity. However, in Denmark people emphasize eating healthy while in France people are more concerned with taste (Kao and Elizabeth 56). There are also some other factors that determine food culture. For instance, sportsmen and women have been known not to eat heavily.

Franchise Feasability Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Franchise Feasability Study - Essay Example What is a franchise, and how does it work? Franchise is a business arrangement undertaken between two parties for the purpose of marketing a product or service. The franchiser (party selling the product or service) enters into an agreement with the franchisee (party buying the product or service) to provide marketing and selling expertise under its banner, for a fee. The franchisee is at liberty to operate in areas not directly under the jurisdiction of the franchiser (Definition: Franchise@ Sterling Knight, Commercial Mortgages, Sterling Knight, What are the rules set out by the Australian Franchise Standards to enhance profitability and high standards of personal and professional conduct? Does Garuva have the qualities to market their services through franchisees in Melbourne and Sydney? What does the Australian Franchise Standards mean in the context of this research, and does Garuva bar and restaurant, meet the suitability criteria of the Australian Franchise Standards to expand its operations through a franchise in the port cities of Sydney and Melbourne? The Franchise Council of Australia (FCA) expects its members to maintain a high level of standards in personal and professional conducts, to enhance public perceptions of a franchise.... teria of the Australian Franchise Standards to expand its operations through a franchise in the port cities of Sydney and Melbourne The Franchise Council of Australia (FCA) expects its members to maintain a high level of standards in personal and professional conducts, to enhance public perceptions of a franchise. In return, FCA will help safeguard the investment of its member franchisers and the businesses of its franchisees, and protect franchise networks from unfair or unethical attacks. Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, is a well developed, industrial, tourism, and sporting city. This makes Brisbane an ideal destination for holiday makers as well as businessmen, not forgetting the local population that draws as much as 16% of the state's total wages. The same can be said of Sydney and Melbourne. Cosmopolitan cities that they are, Garuva would definitely benefit from operating franchises there. This research will exemplify the business potential in the field of food and beverag es and undertake the study of business expansionism through franchise. 2.0 Executive summary Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, is situated to the north of Sydney. It accounts for 10% of the State's total jobs. Wages drawn is equal to 16% of the State's total wages bill. With its industrial areas, international sea and airports, lush green parks, theatres, hotels, outdoor and indoor sports, and tourist spots, which include the world famous Sunshine and Gold Coast, Brisbane is the place to be. An adventurer's and tourist's destination, Brisbane is among the most-sought-after destinations for Australian and international travellers. Approximately 60% of the country's meat export, and roughly 40% of her car imports happens through the Port of Brisbane (Elizabeth Nosworthy, 2001,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Culture Influence of the Food Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Culture Influence of the Food - Assignment Example The ingredients used are leftovers of a sheep after it has been slaughtered and meat extracted. Some people would have to be drunk or drugged in order to take haggis while it remains a cultural delicacy in Scotland. Different religious groups are known to use food as an expression of their faith. Fasting is believed to improve spiritual disciple among the Christians. Muslims are also known for not eating pigs. They consider pigs to be cursed and unholy. Hindus do not eat beef. They believe that the cow is holy(Kao and Elizabeth 87). The young generation has taken fasting to whole new level. Girls are known to fast so as to maintain their perfect physique. This is part of the food culture in today’s world and cannot be ignored. Chinese are known to use chopsticks to eat their food. In some countries around the world, the main meal is taken during the day. That is at noon. However, in America the main meal of the day is taken in the evening shortly before 7 P.M. The evening meal is referred to as dinner. In Spain, the evening meal (supper) is taken around 10 P.M. Some cultures prefer their food to be spicy. E.g. the Chinese. Some will enjoy their food more if it is either bitter, sour or sweet. Some cultures will also like their food to be boiled or fried. While some cultures like eat raw food. Some cultures like the French like eating in groups and holding festivals while some cultures leg Denmark people are allowed to eat alone and eating is not considered a social activity. However, in Denmark people emphasize eating healthy while in France people are more concerned with taste (Kao and Elizabeth 56). There are also some other factors that determine food culture. For instance, sportsmen and women have been known not to eat heavily.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Planned Parenthood Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Planned Parenthood Education - Essay Example In the US, there is an underlying belief that abstinence approaches are effective because of a number of reasons. First of all, adherents to this belief claim that there are certain social, physical and psychological effects that will come as result of expressing one’s sexuality. Supporters of this principle claim that young people are not supposed to treat sex as part of their normal lives because they are too young. They believe that any form of sex outside marriage is simply wrong and out of context. People who hold this perspective are guided by a certain set of moral values. The major principle behind these values is that marriage is the only place for sex. They also hold the view that engaging in any sexual activities before marriage will only make things worse for teenagers. There are some negative effects that will come out of premarital sex and must be avoided at all costs. Adherents to this believe normally hold the view that condoms have very high failure rates and other forms of contraceptives are not appropriate for young people as they do not offer one hundred percent guarantee. It should be noted that many families in the United States are founded upon religious beliefs even though many of them may not like to admit it. Religion requires young people to wait until; marriage. Consequently, its society is to remain intact then teenagers need to refrain from having sex completely. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy. studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex' (Ira, 1990). Planned Parenthood education is quite plausible because it will teach teenagers the fact that sexuality is a perfectly healthy part of life. Additionally, teenagers get to understand all the beliefs and attitudes about sex. This is because the approach does not hide any issue from them. Besides these, Planned Parenthood education ensures that young people understand the true meaning of relationships while teaching them interpersonal skills at the same time. This method requires teachers to give accurate information; meaning that teenagers will understand how to protect themselves using condoms and will decrease risks of contracting sexually transmitted disease. However, this does not undermine the fact that the approach also talks about the effectiveness of abstinence in preventing teenage pregnancies. The approach addresses the fact that this is the only sure

Monday, October 14, 2019

To What Extent the East Asian Model Is Transferable To Other Developing Countries1 Essay Example for Free

To What Extent the East Asian Model Is Transferable To Other Developing Countries1 Essay The economic status of East Asia has become one of the most flourishing and positively growing regional economies in the globe in recent times and something to reckon with. The region has turned to be the home of the global significance as well as the most affluent economy consisting of countries such as; Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore South Korea and Taiwan. There have been numerous and major factors that have turned the economic success of the region to be a positive gain to the countries (Chang, 14). Some of the key constructive factors that have contributed to the developments of the positive economic status in the region includes: positive legal and political environments for both commerce and industry, through the plentiful natural wealth of different kinds, to ample supplies of comparatively low-cost, trained, and flexible employment. The success of the regional economic developments can highly be adopted in many other developing countries. This paper looks into the extent into which the model that has been adopted by the East Asian region, and how well is it suited to be adopted by other developing countries globally (the suitability of the East Asian model into the development of developing countries’ economies) (Hira, 21). Literature review The most successful developing countries over the last over the last half a century have come from East Asia. The rapid economic growth of the eight Asian economies which is often referred to as ‘East Asian Miracle’ brought along two major questions; (I) what policies and other factors contributed to that growth? (ii) And can other developing countries replicate those policies to stimulate equally rapid growth? There have been numerous analyses on the success and also based on case studies econometric data, and economic theory, offers a list of the ingredients that contributed to that success (Kwon et al, 32). Researchers have been done, concerning the model deployed by the East Asian economies and how the countries have managed to navigate through economic crises. World Bank and financial institutions, has conducted the applicability of the development model applied by the East Asian countries into the developing countries. The development evidence of the East Asian fin ancial system has been impressive, especially when compared to that of other developing countries. How can such a record be accounted for? What lessons can we draw from it? What has been the role of public policy? These are questions that have aroused heated debate in recent years, especially among the mainstream neoclassical school and the non-orthodox or revisionists (Saggi, 36). According to World Bank 1993, the ‘East Asian Miracle’ model has been a positive gain to the Asian economies which can as well be adopted in the developing countries. In addition, Haggard, 2004 noted that, there is no fixed definition of what is contained in the ‘East Asian model’ of development. How economies grew, how industrial structures were transformed, how governments intervened in solving coordination problems, pursuing efficient policies, making credible commitments, etc. varied depending on time and location (Hughes, 18). Different writers select different characteristics, often depending on what country (or countries) they are studying, and, at times, in function of their ideological preferences. At the clear risk of over-simplification, but so as to maintain the discussion manageable, four major features will be selected that have, arguably, been both common to, and crucial for, the experiences of Japan, Taiwan and South Korea over the periods he re examined (Chang, 26). Introduction The historical, trade and industrial growth in East Asia described as ‘East Asian Miracle’ brought a huge attention into the world and has provided a large literature on the economic development theories since then (World Bank, 1993). The countries, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, followed Japan, which itself was the very first country that succeeded, becoming an industrialized country outside the famous western economy, and achieved similar economic success in the phase of development following the Second World War from the 1950s to the 1970s and named as the four Asian Tigers. Then the three newly Industrializing economies (NIES) of Southeast Asia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia also managed to take off becoming large enough to reach the respective status of middle income countries in the second phase from the 1970s to the 1990s. (Chang 2006, World Bank, 1993, Jomo, 2001).The adoption of the given model led to the adoption of a strategies directed towards t his regional economic development and in turn coming to be a central aspect in development these economics and the model was denoted as the ‘East Asian Development Model (EADM)’. The model has different defining clauses and includes factors such as state control over finance, direct support for state owned enterprises by the government, import substitution industrialization in heavy industry and shift to export-led industry, a high dependence on export markets and a high rate of domestic savings among other practices. The nature of this model EADM was opposed to the protestations of the IMF-led Washington Consensus, model, which itself constitutes principles, and policies that are aimed at global economy work through the act of harmonizing the way that national economy operates. For example, the models work through the act of reducing barriers to international trade such as tariffs deregulation led to reductions in government control with the pushing for free trade practices. However, the World Bank’s influential study, on the East Asian Miracle represents the neo-classical claim in the current East Asian debate by acknowledging that, the frequent use of state intervention in the East Asian development process, but also inefficiency of the intervention. According to World Bank (1993), the intervention was not harmful, though still not helpful. However, it is widely recognized now that the export-push strategies in East Asia are very much linked to selective industrial policy and state intervention actively promoted economic growth in the region. According to Wade (1992), the development of a concept of the governed market theory, explains the East Asian success by three causes; (I) high levels of productive investment. (ii) Relatively an increased investment in certain key industries and finally (iii) exposure of many industries to international competition. It is argued that such economic policies, incentives, controls and risk spreading mechanism allow them to sustain rapid development, which produces different level productions and its huge outcomes in the private sector. This theory emphasizes on capital accumulation rather than resource allocation as per the orthodox theory as the principle source of growth (Nissanke Ernest, 11). It is unrealistic to assume that there is only one development model and it can be mostly agreed that nations have been taking their own or different ways of pursuing the EADM model with diverse development strategies. Hence, this paper will argue based on the World Bank’s famous distinctions of the model; Northeast Asian model; based on the Japanese paradigm of industrial policy and more active state intervention, which refers namely the NIEs countries Southeast Asian model; described that more open and market-friendly regimes, which refers ASEAN-3 countries; Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia It is often criticized that, the re-applicability of the Northeast Asian model by claiming is not possible in the contemporary context, not only because it ignores the importance of the global market, but also owing to the Unique historical context of Northeast Asia and the constraints under the new regime of the ‘WTO’. Therefore, the first goal of this paper is to refute the initial condition argument while addressing analytical shortcomings of this orthodoxy theory; it deals mostly with static concerns and thus has little say about dynamic changes, and also it downplays the social-political dimensions of the economic development, adopting just a kind of ‘economic determinism’ in their approach (Richter, 44). Positives from the East Asian Model Diversity in ecosystem, population, ethnicity, religion, social structure, and political regime Equally great diversity in GDP, per capita income, and economic development High growth sustained over a long period almost throughout the region. Associated with this high growth are high, savings and investment rates, active, but managed external opening, export orientation, industrialization, and general improvements in social indicators. Accomplishments and Characteristics of the East Asian Development Paradigm One of the major achievements of the model is the rapid economic growth of the region. For example, the implementation of the model led to the real income per capital grow four times bigger than it was previously in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. Another accomplishment of the model was declining inequality. This is whereby; the positive gains and economic developments were evenly distributed throughout the populations. Thirdly, the model led to a quick reduction of the technology gap through massive investment in human capital, importation of foreign technology, export orientation, and the opening of markets for foreign direct investment as a means of introducing advanced technology. Finally, the model led to reduction of poverty rates in the region (Saggi, 51). Adaptability of ‘East Asian Miracle’ into the Developing Countries (To What Extent Can the Model Be Used By the Developing Countries) Less developed, countries or better still developing countries globally are nations denoted by the poor living standard as well as underdeveloped in industrial aspects. Base as well as a low human development index, when compared to other countries. One of the aspects used to differentiate between a developed and an underdeveloped country is the value of the county’s GDP per capita. Less developed nations are countries that have not realized a considerable degree of industrialization in relation to their populations. In most cases, they are said to have medium or poor standards of livelihood. There is a well-built relationship connecting low earnings and high populace growth. Once an expansion strategy is chosen, the proper policy systems will in turn certainly be formed or laid down as the foot print to development, and in turn the outcome of economic growth is, to a greater extent, determined by whether the preferred developmental strategies are right or wrong. If only the m acroeconomic setting and government guiding principles are well thought-out, and not looking into positives and negatives of the given development plan, then a general idea of where the problems lie is impossible. Modification plans thus raised can barely give solutions to problems existing in the wealth of African states (Hughes, 40). The implementation of the East Asian Model in the developing countries would somehow be of great achievement in terms of development. One of the major contributors to the development of the East Asian is the growth driven by trade and investment. For each of the countries in the region, the long term growth path as well as the achievement of industrialization can be tracked by income trends as well as structural shifts in GDP and exports. The exceptional feature of East Asian growth is that it has been achieved through the very existence of East Asia as a powerful arena of economic interaction among its members, and not merely by â€Å"market-friendly† policies or good governance of individual countries alone (Kwon et al, 57). One of the achievement or realization that has contributed to the development of the East Asian regions in terms of economy is the realization of the economic growth through participation in a series of dynamic production network that is generated by pri vate firms. This has been benefited by Linked by trade and investment, a system of international division of labor with clear order and structure exists in the region. Taking this approach into the developing country, the model can be of positive gain to the developing nations. The model also explains the importance of the private sector in the economic development of a nation. This can be adopted in the developing nations as it would lead to the increase of the country’s GDP (Kwon et al, 68). Another point that can be borrowed from the East Asian development model is the interaction among the members of the region. Thus, can be deployed in other regions such as Africa and also becomes a success. This would lead to the formation of powerful arena in terms of economic interactions between different countries. Moreover, good governance should be adhered in order to achieve the benefits from the model implementations. For the developing countries to develop and adopt the model into positive gains, the developing countries, have no choice but to initiate development, and undertake international integration via trade and investment. The East Asia model has also described the need to have well established political, social and economical conducive environment for a better economic development. This van as well be adopted in the developing nations which are greatly denoted by poor political establishments, and deteriorated social and economic aspects (Hira, 71). One of the developing regions or countries is the African states. The biggest question that remains for the African states is: Can African learn from the ‘East Asia miracle’ development model? Yes, the model can be of great help to a number of African nations as majority of them are categorized as developing countries. Since 1970’s all the way to the late 1990’s, East Asia has experienced has embarked on a model that has resulted in an outstanding evidence of high and unrelenting fiscal growth. The model has become a development model to other developing regions as is the case of African states (Chang, 49). One of the major aspects of the model is the East Asian regions embarked on the plan to increase the value and the amount of exported goods and as well reduce the number of imported goods. Through the increase in the volume of exports from the Asian countries, there was an increase in the volume of finished goods and the success in export trade has seen maintenance of high deposition and domestic venture rates. This provides the capital essential for economic expansion. Consequently, reducing the dependence on foreign investment and embark on home trade, investment and in turn increasing the value of GDP (Nissanke Earnest, 63). Following the attainment of independence, the third world countries were faced with the task of identifying the right approaches to build up their economies. This was meant to exterminate poverty as soon as they could. Many of these countries (developing) turned to strategies that targeted industrialization acceleration. This opted choice by some countries brought along an economic system that was an unclear macro policy setting and designed distribution structures for properties and the micro-management need for self-sufficiency. The result of the countries that deployed this approach to develop their economy, were shocked as such economic structures smothered economic growth. In return the economies of these countries which followed such strategies didn’t step forward at all, as some of the nations fell behind development as they were faced with more problems (Chang, 80). In contrast to this scenario, the development plans adopted in the East Asia signified an extra choice and approach to economic development. The region members gave massive contemplations to their resource state of affairs, and in turn they took advantage of their ample labor availability resources which provided them with low costs of labor. This approach allowed them to establish industries that are labor intensive as an economy development take-off. In addition, in order to achieve positive results in their economy development, the countries had to adjust their industrial organization. This approach was deployed in the ‘East Asia miracle’ model, which turned to be a success in the region. However, the approach of the same by the developing countries would be of great benefit to the countries and their regions such as Africa (Richter, 55). Another advantage of the miracle model for the developing countries is that, it teaches the developing economies to sustain a constructive macro-economic situation as well as the correct basic policies. The Asian countries have maintained their debt within bearable limits. One of the factors that has dragged the economic development and prosperity of the developing economies is the massive and inability to control their debts. The countries are heavily indebted to the financial institutions such as the World Bank and IMF, such that, they are unable to control their debts owed to another stable and developed countries. With the inability to control their debts, the developing countries couldn’t control their inflation as well as both their home and foreign debts to a definite extent. Most of the developing countries are agriculture products dependent in terms of their productions. The East Asian models for economic development guaranteed the effectiveness of their policies whic h in turn was to enhance an increase in agriculture production (Jomo, 76). Other positive which can be of great advantage and can also be adapted into other developing countries includes the foundation of fundamental sound development policies. A large portion of economy development in East Asian can be attributed to getting the fundamentals needed correctly. These factors or fundamentals include responsible and disciplined fiscal and monetary policies, which are beneficial in maintaining moderate rates of inflation in the developing countries. Inflation is one of the factors that are a hindrance to economic stability in these developing countries. In addition, the model called for the conducive economic environment for private investment. For the developing countries, it helps realize the vital and the importance of the private sector in the economic development of the countries. In addition to the importance of the private sector in the economic development, the East Asian â€Å"miracle† model also advocated for high investments in education. To th e developing countries, investment in education, such as post secondary education, vocational and technical skill training developed a better educated labor force suited for rapid economic development (Kwon et al, 86). High rising and saving rates were also a practice advocated by the model. The East Asian governments developed a relatively sound and stable financial system. This was achieved through strengthening prudential regulations and supervision of financial institutions and setting limits on competition. They also expanded the financial system network by promoting postal saving systems to successfully increase the accessibility of financial savings instruments to non-traditional savers. Finally, the fundamentally sound development policies included actively seeking foreign technology through foreign licensing, capital goods imports, and liberalization of foreign direct investment. The policies were some of the adaptable policies what would work well with numerous developing countries globally (Hughes, 98). In fact, since the 1970s, Africa nations have continuously explored and re-assessed their development strategies, so as to seek out with a unique development pattern suited to Africa. This exploration is still underway. In this regard, African country can gain some ideas from the experiences of East Asia. A favorable macroeconomic policy environment is needed to support the practice of comparative advantage development strategies. For this purpose, productive factor markets and finished products, markets, which are feasible and fully competitive, must be established, so as to conform to the smooth operation of the market mechanism. Some African countries are making efforts in this direction while adjusting their structure. Meanwhile, they should pay special attention to adjusting policies (Hira, 89). Agricultural policy for agriculture remains the mainstay of the economy in most African countries; the support of the agricultural sector is significantly to economic development. The experiences in East Asia have shown that with the right agricultural policies and a measure, agriculture plays an important role in pushing the national economies forward. Many African countries have improved, to differing degrees, in prices and the circulation of goods, as well as agricultural tax policies. But there is a long way to go. Improving the management of State assets and raising profits in most African countries. State enterprises play a significant role in production and employment. However, poor profits and large losses have become an emerging problem facing economic development. Many countries have proposed the privatization of State enterprises. So far, the process has made little progress and has had little effect. In this aspect they still need to explore new methods of reform (Nissank e Ernest, 78). Defining government functions either under the marketing economy or the planned economy, government plays a very important role in economic development, only differing in its functions. The experiences in East Asia have indicated that the government should intervene only in the fields where it is needed, leaving markets to operate freely. Only in those fields, such as developing human resources, constructing and protecting infrastructure, environmental protection and so on. Where markets are not able to operate, will the government need to intervene? This will create a stable, sustainable and fair environment for the operation of market mechanisms. Choosing suitable development strategies and forming correct policies, this is a precondition for achieving favorable results, but not the full condition for ideal development. An effective and powerful government is a basic guarantee for the realization of the development aim. During the past three years, the African economies have contin ually risen and the overall situation has been improved. But the adjustment of strategies and improvements in external conditions requires time. Africa will be able to step on the path of continuous economic growth only if it undertakes long-term efforts and carries out suitable economic reforms (Chang, 101). Reasons why the development model won’t work with other developing countries Letdown of the East Asian growth Model Despite the progress made by the East Asia region in terms of economic developments, criticisms of the model have been raised as well as the models, adapted to other countries such as the developmental one. In addition, the adaptability and sustainability of the model have been questioned. The path trodden by East Asia has not always been smooth as some nations in the region failing to achieve high growth, and the states were hit by occasional setbacks. East Asia has had its share of hardships in its history, with hot and cold wars, social instabilities and financial crises. In addition, the structural weakness of the model is a posing threat to the adaptability of the system into other countries economy development. Despite the weakness, not a sign of the end of the system, it may instead be a signal that the model in dire need of repair in order to be a success even to other different regions (Nissanke Ernest, 92). Moreover, the East Asian model has evolved over time and adapted to the changes that has occurred in the region such a political, societal and economic changes which have not only occurred in Asia but also in other parts of the world. The fundamental question from this is whether the model can adapt to some of the most significant changes and developments that change the economic landscape of the developing countries such as democratization and domestic economic liberalization, globalization in parallel with regionalization, and the emergence of a new economy driven by information technology. The model can be able to adjust to significant changes in the region, but at the same time fail to adapt to the same changes in other regions such as Africa (Chang, 120). East Asian countries were constantly showing a lot of structural strains and rigidities. The model was hampered by four main failures that affected the credibility and applicability of the model into the developing nations globally. One of the failures is that, the model neglected the differences involving the government mechanism and the elected policy as well as the market liberalization. In addition, the failure to reorganize the financial structure was a stumbling block for the model to be adopted in the developing countries. Finally, the congested and non-transparent corporate sector within the developing countries such as the African states was a stumbling block to the implementation of the model (Kwon at al, 136). Asian Financial Crisis In 1997 Despite the growing status as one of the blossoming economic growth globally, the east Asia economy had to overcome some worrying and threatening financial crises. The Asian region was at some time faced with a severe financial crisis, Fro example is the ‘Asian financial Crisis in 1997’ also known as Asian Contagion. This was a succession of money devaluations that had spread through a good number of Asian markets. This financial menace started in Thailand, and spread to other Asian countries such as Hong Kong, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and South Korea. The  Asian financial crisis  was a period of  financial crisis  that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997, and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to  financial contagion (Harrold, 66). The currency markets first failed in Thailand as the result of the governments decision to no longer peg the local currency to the U.S. dollar. Currency declines spread rapidly throughout South Asia, in turn causing stock market declines, reduced import revenues and even government upheaval. According to Krugman’s Paul view, the east Asia economic growth had historically been due to the increase of capital investment. However, the total factor productivity of the region had only increased marginally or not increased at all. In the case of long term prosperity, there ought to have grown only in total factor productivity and not capital investment. The collapse of the Thai Baht in July 1997 was followed by an unprecedented financial crisis in East Asia, from which these economies are still struggling to recover. A great deal of effort has been devoted to trying to understand its causes. One view is that there was nothing inherently wrong with East Asian economies, which have historically performed very well. These economies experienced a surge in capital inflows to finance productive investments that made them vulnerable to a financial panic. That panic–and inadequate policy responses–triggered a region-wide financial crisis and the economic disruption that followed. In addition, The weaknesses of the financial sector in the East Asian region were masked by rapid growth and accentuated by large capital inflows, which were partly encouraged by pegged exchange rates (Harrold, 103). Key Root Causes Of The Asian Financial Crisis In summary, the main causes of the financial crises in Asia were: Large current account deficits that left the countries vulnerable to changes in investor confidence and macroeconomic conditions (i.e., slower growth). Overvalued exchange rates that were often pegged to the U.S. dollar, which was, at that time, appreciating quite rapidly. Rapid and unsustainable increases in asset prices, especially stock market and real estate prices. A currency mismatch between assets and liabilities that left banks and enterprises vulnerable to exchange rate devaluations. Inadequate bank regulation and supervision. Implicit and explicit government guarantees that made high-risk projects (including projects which relied upon continued appreciation in real estate prices) attractive to investors. Political instability Lessons learned from the Asian crisis In East Asia, in addition to supporting the International Monetary Funds programs, the Bank provided Structural Adjustment Loans to prop up and re-capitalize on selected banks by supporting bond issues. In addition, the World Bank set up credit lines to help finance imports. The Asian crisis menace came as an eye opener and as a surprise to policymakers, investors, and academics alike, where buy despite majority accepting the menace was expected it would have been controlled and avoided too. This would be of great help to the developing economies such as the African States cases. The recommendations that were passed for the prevention of Asian financial crisis prevention would be of great help to prevent the re-emergence of such a case again. In addition, the crisis was an eye opener to the economies of developing countries as well as the importance of the IMF. These include conditional financing, bail out from the such menaces as well as the structural adjustment package. As seen from the Asian Financial Crisis case, financial intervention from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank played a vital role in reversing the scenario. As a result of the crisis, many nations adopted protectionist measures to ensure the stability of their own currency. Often this led to heavy buying of U.S. Treasuries, which are used as a global investment by most of the worlds sovereignties. Financial and government reforms in countries like Thailand, South Korea, Japan and Indonesia. It also serves as a valuable case study for economists who try to understand the interwoven markets of today, especially as it relates to currency trading and national account management. In summary, of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the East Asia’s experience suggests that while a classic panic may have played a role, financial sector weaknesses were a major contributor to the recent financial crisis. Such weaknesses appear to reflect the inability of lenders to use business criteria in allocating credit and implicit or explicit government guarantees against risk. This implies that it would be prudent to accompany efforts to spur recovery in East Asia by reforms designed to strengthen the financial system. ‘East Asian Miracle’ Application To African Countries (Kenya) From the early 1970s onwards, the nations of East-Asia, also known as the Asian Tigers due to their astounding growth and expansion economically that demystified the conformist economic theory based on the western model of growth that adopted industrial development as an approach for overall development. Numerous researchers have pointed out that, contrasting the western model, the Asian model is premised on capital build up as well as that of human capital, which are seen as influential in the growth of these countries economies. The Asian economic growth has been very notable such that it has served as a textbook case for strategy makers in numerous Least Developing Countries such as is the case in Africa (Nyongo, 2007). This growth incident has baffled various economic historians as well as geographical experiences recorded so far leading to researchers to argue that, success in Asian countries was based on an updated version of primitive accumulation and that, their success can be a model if only their high savings rates can be replicated. This is in   contrast to African economies such as Kenya, which took off at the same time and indeed rate as the Asian economies. Contlarry of the Asian countries, Kenya recorded dismal and unsatisfactory growth and development over the last two decades prompting a number of scholars to call the incident â€Å"a crisis of proportion. This rather tremendous contrast between the two regions, that so recently shared a similar turbulent past, raises many questions which should be of interest as well as a challenge to policy makers, especially in Africa to discern what went wrong with their policies and policy implementation, against what went right with Asian coun tries. Such questions that beg urgent answers are even more pertinent when one considers that, Kenya was poised to grow faster than the Asian countries considering its resource advantages. For example, at the time of self-government countries such Kenya and Ghana were said to have had a healthier growth prediction than any country among the Asian tigers. According to the world bank, (2003) â€Å"it would be hugely important for African researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to have the opportunity to observe directly the economies of East Asia and Southern Asia themselves to discuss economic policy reform directly with the academics, practitioners and policy makers from the Asian region.† However, one point that should be kept in perspective is that, there are no two nations that are similar so as to assume that expansion and growth in one can be replicated in the other. One point to be noted in cases of development, there are some fundamental factors that must be in place for a country to latch into the development phase and the rest depends on the model the country pursues to sustain the development. Many policy makers and indeed some academics in Kenya, and Africa at large have, for quite some time now, tended to attribute Africa’s poor development record of its historical past, specifically blaming it on her colonial legacy, and later neo-colonial ‘manipulation by western countries’. Such attitude holds no ground when one considers that Asian countries had a comparable historical environment, which limits the extent to which these arguments can be held to justify the poor development record of many African states 50 years on. One point to be noted when it comes to Kenyan case and other African countries is that, African economies at the time, were not capable of creating good governance on their own, nor could they be expected to assemble the human and capital resources necessary to ensure a development process. According to Nissanke (1998), the failure of African states to economically develop like the Asian case, after independence is that, whilst all seemed to have a common goal of accelerating the pace of economic growth and thus development, they tended to diverge on such issues as: the role of the state, the degree of openness that could be accommodated, the desirable partner of investment in social services versus economic services, and the government-private sector relations. The long-standing results obtained   were not dissimilar, suggesting that, failure was the outcome of a wrong mix of policies which are uncoordinated, absence of institutions, external environment, lack of societal prepared ness, which were by and large   constraints overcame by their Asian counterparts. Elsewhere O’Connel (1996) commenting on such failure, emphasized that, African states and especially Kenya, have evolved from a shortage of capital diagnosis of the 1960s and 1970s, to a diagnosis of policy failure of the 1980s and, finally, to a diagnosis of institutional failures of the late 1990s. However, other researchers who, when comparing the source of growth in Asia with those of Germany, UK, USA and Japan, conclude that, by far the most important source of economic growth in these countries is capital accumulation, accounting for between 48% to 72% of their economic growth (Nyongo, 2007). Others have pointed out that, it is rather a combination of both capital accumulation and human capital accumulation (learning by doing) which have been the productive engine behind the unprecedented growth, pointing out that, physical capital critical in the growth process, is rather passive and subsidiary to human capital accumulation. This contrasts to the above group of industrialized nations where technical progress played a vital role in their development, accounting for between 46% and 71% of their economic growth (Aryeetey International Conference). Whereas capital accumulation and indeed human capital development accounts for growth differentials between Africa and Asian countries, it all depended on policy choices each the countries in Asia took, for such development has not been uniform in most Asian economies either. Rather, Asian countries which have recorded unprecedented growth episodes have combined not only right and consistent policies over time, but also their societal preparedness had an even greater role to play to this end. It has thus been pointed out that, countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and of late Vietnam have all had an element of societal preparedness, which is highlighted in the culture of hard work, drive to succeed, and high propensities to save (Nyongo, 2007). Others even argue that, the Chinese culture (of hard work and their strive for excellence) entrenched in most of these countries in part explains their drive to grow at the rates that far exceed the growth recorded elsewhere. The dismal performance of a number of African economies has also been explained in the context that, factors attendant in the Asian region, were not to be found in African countries, and no wonder that, no one country latched into development phase close to the Asian Tigers (Aryeetey International Conference, 2003). Although many African countries have borrowed a leaf from their Asian counterparts, especially in the areas of human capital development, the new paradigm shift has mainly focused on institutional development. This is even more pertinent considering that, Africa has not been short of capital. Indeed, despite the massive foreign aid and to a lesser extent direct capital flows, African economies have not developed as expected. This reinforces the belief that, capital inflows, whether local or foreign, cannot make an impact in the absence of a conducive environment characterized by transparency, governments, good governance, democratic political economy, conducive economic, social-cultural, and legal environment (Harrold, 96). Findings and conclusions At the turn 21st century, there has much dialogue and discussion about the ‘miracle model’ in East Asia and its effectiveness in the economic development and its sustainability. The East Asian economic development model, which built the hypothetical and institutional structure of growth in the area, is liable along with the rest of what was one time called the East Asian Miracle. In an attempt to give a rich, textured analysis, it’s clear from the paper that, the model can be of positive gain to the developing countries in terms of economic development. Despite the ‘East Asian development model’ a workable option for the developing and less developed countries, it had its own shortcomings. The contributors provide a cohesive review of the East Asian development model, exploring its cultural heritage, the political context through which it arose, its basic assumptions, and its recent failures. In particular, they identify the causes and consequences of the Asian economic crisis, describe the features of economic development throughout the region, and discuss the strategic responses of Asian firms to newly  developing economies of countries such as African states. The sustainable and swift economic growth in East Asia has attracted wide attention in Africa, and they believe the successful experiences of East Asia should be followed to develop African national economy vigorously. It’s clear that the model deployed by the countries in the region (East Asia) was effective in raising the country’s GDP and in turn it was worthy to be deployed in the African countries which are an example of developing states. Despite the growing challenges over the time, the model can be of great help to numerous growing economies. However, the fact that the East Asian model is so attractive to many African countries is bound to have profound implications for development practitioners. Western aid is not the only game in town anymore, and the global development  agenda is no more immune from the influence of a rising Asia than the global economic system has turned out to be. Developing countries can now choose between an ever-growing variety of donors, trading partners, investors and development strategies. Whether or not we agree with the models they pick or even with the idea of a development model at all we would do well to listen to and engage with these views. Therell be no point in trying only to reform and improve western aid if the real debate is happening somewhere else. References Adams, Francis G.  Public Policies in East Asian Development: Facing New Challenges. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger, 1999. Print. Aryeetey, E., International Conference Asia and Africa in the Global Economy. (2003).  Asia and Africa in the global economy. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Chang, Ha-Joon.  Rethinking Development Economics. London: Anthem Press, 2004. Print Chang, Ha-Joon.  The East Asian Development Experience: The Miracle, the Crisis and the Future. London: Zed / TWN, 2006. Print. Harrold, P., Jayawickrama, M., Bhattasali, D. (1996).  Practical lessons for Africa from East Asia in industrial and trade policies. Washington, DC: World bank. Hira, Anil.  An East Asian Model for Latin American Success: The New Path. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2007. Print. Hughes, Helen.  Achieving Industrialization in East Asia. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print. Jomo, K S.  Growth after the Asian Crisis: What Remains of the East Asian Model? New York: United Nations, 2001. Print. Kwon, Jene K., and Jung Mo Kang. The East Asian Model Of Economic Development.  Asian- Pacific Economic Literature  25.2 (2011): 116-130.  Business Source Complete. Web. 11 May 2014. Nissanke, Machiko, and Ernest Aryeetey.  Comparative Development Experiences of Sub- Saharan Africa and East Asia: An Institutional Approach. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print. Nyongo, P. A. (2007).  A leap into the future: A vision for Kenyas socio-political and economic transformation. Nairobi: African Research and Resource Forum. Richter, Frank-Jürgen.  The East Asian Development Model: Economic Growth, Institutional Failure and the Aftermath of the Crisis. Basingstoke [u.a.: Macmillan [u.a., 2000. Print. Saggi, Kamal.  International Technology Transfer to Developing Countries. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2004. Print. Source document

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Overview Of Benchmarking Theory Management Essay

Overview Of Benchmarking Theory Management Essay Benchmarking theory is established upon the performance comparison, gap, and changes in the management process (Watson, 1993). A literature review also shows that majority of benchmarking methodologies perform the same function as performance gap analysis (e.g. Camp, 1989; Karlof and Ostblom, 1993; Watson, 1993). In a context of waste, first rule of benchmarking is to determine the performance gaps with respect to generation and utilization within a management system and to develop method to close them. The gap between internal and external practices reveals the changes and at the same time differentiates benchmarking theory from comparison research and competitive analysis. The author explained further that competitive analysis focus on product or service comparisons but benchmarking examine the operating and management skills that is use to produce goods and services. More also, competitive analysis looks at the characteristic of competitors in the same geographical location whilst benchmarking seeks to find the best practices regardless of location. (Walleck et al., 1991). Benchmarking has been defined by many authors due to its positive and negative result affecting the success of performance improvement within the organization. The literature review of Kozak, 2004, original sources: Camp, 1989; Zairi, 1992; Smith et al., 1993; Rogers et al., 1995, explained that benchmarking: Enable organization to ascertain the position they have more strength and weaknesses depending upon charges in supply, demand and market condition. Enables to set new standard and objectives to enhance customer satisfaction in term of quality, cost, product and services. It gives employees new standard knowledge to work on and also motivate them to always strive for more improvement. Enable organization to determine the possible level of performance they could attain by looking at others and to what extent they could achieved such performance Help organization to stimulate continuous performance which will give them competitive edge over others and enables it maintain world class standard. Despite the above benefit, a successful benchmarking researcher Bendell (1993) stated that time constraints, competitive barriers, cost, lack of both management commitment and professional human resources, resistance to change, poor planning and short-term expectations are regarded as barriers. The author further noted that poor execution of benchmarking exercise can lead to waste of time, finance and human resources. Elmuti and Kathawala( 1997) illustrate that there is no single best practice of benchmarking because peoples ideology varies and organization concept and system differs from one another. On a contrary, there is a risk involved in benchmarking others and adopting their new standards into ones own company. However, the best practice which is producing outstanding performance with good examples should be perceived and adopted. According to research, benchmarking has been defined by many authors and organization even though each definition aims to reach same conclusion. Nevertheless, benchmarking was basically stems from Demings quality management theory, which aims to enhance quality and check its sustainability by following several stages in order( Kozak 2004, p5). Websters Dictionary defines benchmark as a standard by which something can be measured or judged (Kozak, 2004 p. 5). Xerox and Robert C. Camp at the end of the 1980s gave most widely accepted and referenced text on the subject of benchmarking as the continuous process of measuring our products, services and practices against the toughest competitors or those companies recognized as industry leaders (Camp, 1989). On a simply note, benchmarking is the process of finding the best practice in an organization and forecasting what performance should yield in the future. The three principles of benchmarking are maintaining quality, customer satisfacti on and continuous improvement. (Kozak 2004, p.5, original source: Watson, 1993). Some author sees benchmarking as a continuous process or measurement while others defined it as finding and looking significance things to enhance an organization performance. For example, Vaziri (1992) defined benchmarking as a continuous process of comparing organizations performance with that rated as the best within the industry considering consumers needs and determining what needed to be improved in order to have competitive edge in the future. Similarly, Watson (1993) also emphasizes benchmarking in term of continuity feature referring to the continuous input of information acquired from benchmarked organization into the organization. Geber (1990, p. 36) based his definition at significance focus on the best practice of benchmarking as follow: a process of finding the world-class examples of a product, service or operational system and then adjusting your products, services or systems to meet or beat those standards. Approaches to definitions of benchmarking Adopted from (Kozak, 2004. Destination Benchmarking) In practice by many organizations, benchmarking process usually encompasses the following: Regularly analyzing and comparing aspect of performance with high ranked organization Identifying the performance gaps Establishing fresh method to improve on such performances Continuous tracking the implementation improvement; and By continuous monitoring progress stages and assessing the benefit Types of benchmarking Due to many relevant literature reviews, it could be seen that there are many classification of benchmarking, the main categorization are internal, competitive and functional benchmarking (Kozak 2004, p.10 original authors: Camp, 1989; Zairi, 1992). Kozak (2004,p.10) further classified benchmarking into two parts: internal and external benchmarking, in same context, competitive and functional benchmarking was classified under external benchmarking. INTERNAL BENCHMARKING Internal benchmarking is regarded as two ways communication and sharing information between departments within the same organization or between organizations operating as a branch in different countries (Cross and Leonard, 1994; Breiter and Kline, 1995). This kind of system can be found in a franchising company whereby an outstanding performance by any part of the organization will be learnt by the other. Internal benchmarking is an added advantage to an organization or partner who shares a common language, culture and systems, having easy access to data, and giving a baseline for future comparisons (Breiter and Kline, 1995). EXTERNAL BENCHMARKING It is an opposite or reverse case of internal benchmarking as it was read in many relative literatures. External benchmarking requires comparison of activities with external organization in order to acquire method, new ideas and knowledge using by the organization to attain such an outstanding performance in the production of goods and services. Kozak (2004, p11) noted the objective of external benchmarking as the persistence in improvement of ones performance by measuring and comparing with that of others and determine how others achieve their performance levels. This type of benchmarking provides opportunities for an organization to learn from the best practices and experiences of the others who have the competitive edge in the industry. The consistent review of benchmarking by Kozak (2004, p.11) has brought up another three subcategories of benchmarking which are: competitive, generic and relationship benchmarking. Competitive benchmarking: this type of benchmarking occurs only among the direct competitors. According to Kozak (2004) explains that competitive benchmarking is regarded as the most sensitive type of benchmarking activities because of it difficulties in achieving an applaudable collaboration and cooperation with direct competitors and reach primary sources of information. For example Xeroxs market shares starts to diminish because of the entrance of new competitors. Therefore the management decided to benchmark its performance with competitors within the same industry. The results of this enhance its financial position, stabilized its market shares and increase its customers satisfaction. (Cook, 1995). Functional benchmarking: Functional benchmarking refers to comparative research and attempts to seek world-class excellence by comparing business performance not only against competitors but also against the best businesses operating in similar fields and performing similar activities or having similar problems, but in a different industry (Kozak, 2004, original sources: Davies, 1990; Breiter and Kline, 1995). For instance British Rail Network South East benchmarked British airways in order to improve the standard of cleanliness of trains. They were able to achieve such aim by the survey that was conducted on British airways mode of cleanliness. (Cook, 2005). Moreover, this type of benchmarking makes it easier for best in class organizations to share new ideas, best practice and experience together and it is as well regarded as non- competitive benchmarking (Kozak 2004, p.12). Relationship benchmarking: This type of benchmarking occurs between organizations that have mutual relationship together before the agreement of benchmarking is sealed (Anderson, 1995). This method potentially may provide some benefits to organizations since less time is required and the trust established between the two parties will help break down confidentiality barriers. Cox et al. (1997) call this collaborative benchmarking. Benchmarking best practice Historically, benchmarking is seen as an essential tools for continuous improvement of goods and services in an organization ( Dattakumar and Jagadeesh 2003). For example Xerox Corporation in the united state was the first company to be credited with a successful benchmarking project in 1979. Nowadays, organizations have realized that in order for them to survive in the nearest future, they have to initiate major changes within their organization that will make them more productive and reduce costs. benchmarking goes beyond just competitive analyses, rather than analyzing organizational processes and method to assess how the competitive edge is achieved. Benchmarking against Best practice requires seeking out the undisputed leader in the process that is critical to business success regardless of sector or locations. I.e using the most effective methods of achieving optimal performance leading to superior performance is the process of benchmarking for Best Practices identifying, sharing, and imparting knowledge, innovative ideas, and highly effective operating procedures related to best business practices, inside and outside your organization (Julian L. Aston and Jonathan A. Goldhill). In a nutshell, the achievement of any organization is to successfully identify and appl ying best practices in its operations which will result to reduction in business expenses and improve its organizational efficiency. In order for benchmarking process to be achieved in an organization, the follow steps need to be initiated and implemented (Julian L. Aston and Jonathan A. Goldhill): Step 1: The management needs to establish a lead Best Practices team that will be engaged with overall development and company-wide implementation of this important new activity. In addition, creates departmental benchmarking teams charged with development and implementation of Best Practices within their individual department. Step 2: Each team determines the types of Best Practices their department must uphold. Step 3: Teams identify benchmarking resources applicable to their Best Practice needs. Step 4: The teams collect and analyze information. Step 5: Each team determines the value of each Best Practice relative to attaining departmental and overall corporate objectives. Step 6: Team members take the time to understand and analyze the point gap between an existing standard or practice and the desired best practice standard. Step 7: Each team brainstorms how they can close the point gap, and develops an action plan in support of upholding each Best Practice. Step 8: The teams take action under the leadership and guidance of the Lead Best Practices Team, reporting to Senior Management. Finally in order for the implementation of a Best Practices Program to be successful, establishment of departmental Best Practices teams must be initiated and charged with the task of managing the process on a continuous basis. Best Practices Example A vivid example of a best practice is demonstrated by SRC in Springfield, Missouri. Convinced that everyone is responsible for the companys success, SRCs management team trained every employee in cash flow management, a tool that has enabled the company to generate double-digit growth every year since its founding 12 years ago. SRC has grown in 12 years from one company of 100 employees to 12 employee-owned companies in 16 sites with 750 people. SRC has been named the Entrepreneurial Company of the Year by Inc. magazine for the last three years. The current turnover rate is less than 1 percent. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BENCHMARKING AND BEST PRACTICES Are benchmarking and best practices the same? According to many literature reviews, it could be understood that benchmarking is totally differ from best practices. Benchmarking is the process that gives one the opportunities to ascertain potential best practices, i.e. identifying best ranked performer; one to locate a specific practices within an organization that could enhance own performance. However, there are different categories of benchmarking which organization might practice and it was understood that some organization benchmarked for the purpose of setting performance target for their own organization rather to ascertain practices that contributed to the success of other organization and to emulate it. What distinguishes best practices from benchmarking? A best practice is never a new idea, perhaps is what meets the seven following criteria: Successful over Time: A best practice must be documented. Quantifiable results: The achievement must be quantifiable. Innovative: Must have a distinctive program and process from its peer Recognized positive outcome: Best practice should generate different positive result and indicators Repeatable: A best practice should be adopted with modifications. Should establish different strategies and be able forecast benefits that are likely to be accrue to others. Has local importance: Best practice is seen as an outstanding performance to those who seek for it. Therefore, it should not be a duplicate strategy; i.e organizations should adopt it with modification. Not linked to unique demographics: A best practice may have evolved as a result of unique demographics, but organization from other demographics should be able to transfer with modification. In conclusion, although different authors views benchmarking from their different perspectives as it is demonstrated in the figure () . All these definitions portray same aim and objectives: the continuous measurement and improvement of an organizations performance against the best in the industry to obtain information about new working methods or practices (Kozak 2004, p.7). However, best practices and methods that are seen as the success key to an organization may not necessarily be the best to those adopting it. Therefore benchmarking requires full scale modification and extensive innovation in order for justifiable achievement to be attain.